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Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the greatest common micro-vascular complication of diabetes which has a tremendous visual effects and leading to blindness among patients.
The study aim: Evaluate the impact of applying an instructional scheme regarding the prevention of diabetic retinopathy on patients' performance.
Study design: A Quasi-experimental design (pre-post and follow-up test) was utilized to accomplish this study. The study was carried out at the medical outpatient clinics of Damanhur University Hospital.
Sample: A purposive sample of 150 type II diabetic patients were included.
Data collection tools: Two tools were used to collect the data, the first tool was a structured interview questionnaire to assess the socio-demographic data. The second tool was a three-part structured interview questionnaire to assess a patient's knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding diabetic retinopathy. After that, the instructional scheme was implemented in three educational sessions. Three months later, the data collection was repeated, and HbA1C was retested, then the data was analyzed.
Results: This study revealed that there is a significant difference between overall performance levels among diabetic patients regarding preventive measures of diabetic retinopathy in the post and follow-up instructional scheme implementation phases compared to pre-instructional scheme implementation phases with p= (0.001). In addition, there was a significant positive correlation founded between diabetic patients' knowledge, practice, and attitude scores regarding preventive measures of diabetic retinopathy in pre, post, and follow-up instructional scheme implementation phases mainly between practice & attitude with p= (0.001).
Conclusion & Recommendations: implementation of the instructional scheme for diabetic patients regarding the prevention of retinopathy showed a remarkable improvement of the patient's level of knowledge and acquiring the ultimate positive and noticeable improvement in the patient's corrective actions towards preventive strategies of retinopathy and self-care. Endorse instructional scheme for prevention of diabetic retinopathy in the patients' prevention programs plus continuous patients' education