Markov Analysis Of Student Performance In Colleges Of District Lower Dir And District Malakand Pakistan

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Zahid Khan , Muhammad Azeem , Sundus Hussain


The present study measures the students’ performance based on the obtained grade pints in Secondary and Higher Secondary examination results in District Dir and District Malakand, Pakistan, using data from Khan et al. (2022). The transition probabilities from one grade to another grade are calculated for individual respondent by Markov Chain. The result indicates that students having low grade has very low probability to goes to higher grades. While average grade students have comparatively higher probability to geos to higher grade. Moreover, the higher-grade students have low probability to get higher grade, high probability to get low grade, moderate probability to get average grade. The education leader and parents should focus on the higher-grade students that they stay on his state i.e to obtain the same grade in next examination.

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