An Empirical Study on Consumer Buying Behaviour during COVID-19 Pandemic

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Paiman Ahmad, Hussein Khalifa, Shrinivas Kulkarni, Emad Omer, Araz Ramazan Ahmad, Shahbaz Sharif , Swapnil Singh, Ahmed Omar Bali


Background: this study deals with analyzing consumer-buying behavior during the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic. During the phase of pandemic consumer behavior's, purchasing mood, and habits have been changing rapidly. This study illustrates that COVID-19 has accelerated panic among consumers, and during the phases of COVID-19 people have been deeply concerned about meeting their daily needs especially during the lockdowns and curfews. Experiencing fear and panic during COVID-19 have resulted in creating uncertainty for consumers to buy certain types of products including; food, medicine, and hygiene products as essential needs.

Purpose - Consumer buying behavior has always been a sensitive aspect that can be affected by the various factors typically; this has been experienced during the span of COVID-19. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the main factors that affect the consumer’s buying behavior during the COVID-19 outbreak. The study aims to learn about potential factors such as fear and irrational behavior and their influence on consumers' buying behavior. 

Design/methodology/approach - The research surveyed 500 participants from more than 40 countries. The study collected data through an online designed questionnaire using a convenient sampling approach. The study employed a structural equation modeling approach using Smart PLS 3.3.3. 

Findings - The results of the survey show that consumer-buying behavior is changed during the COVID-19, as consumers enter the panic and fear phase. Therefore, consumers stock necessary products due to fear of quarantine and lock-down. Another crucial key finding of this study is that the consumers have encountered various risks as "personal, social and economic risks," besides which the study also shows that consumers during COVID-19 changed their attitude and preference towards the products of safety and survival as 'gloves, masks, food, sanitizers, and hand soap.' This study shows that COVID-19 has a tremendous influence on consumer buying behavior

Originality/value - The findings of this study are in line with what Arjun Chaudhuri (2007) has addressed regarding emotions and reasons of consumers while purchasing a product as "joy and sorrow are basic, primal motivations in the human condition, and are crucial determinants in our choices of products and services.

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