Arne Naess Reflection of Eco- Centrism and Deep- Ecology with Utilitarian and Deontological Defence against Anthropocentric Theory

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Dr Mayuri Barman


Eco centrism and Anthropocentrism are regarded as most important ecological theory. People believing anthropocentrism feels themselves as if they are the most important entities in the universe and animals and plants have less value then human beings. But humans have the responsibility to protect and preserve the environment where they have to stay in harmony with other elements of nature. Thus the new way of ecological thinking that arises in the 20th century is of ‘Great Spirit’ of inspiration where “interconnection” is seen alive. This ‘Relational Model’ is very much helpful as it will really affect the anthropocentric attitude of every person. Anthropocentrism is just like a force which is favour for human concern and not for sustainability. Arne Naess, the founding father of environmental philosophy, developed his strong ecological revolution where ‘Deep ecology’ is a move from anthropocentrism to eco-centrism. Deep ecology arises as a new perception which brings together thinking, feeling, spirituality and action. So, deep ecological thinking and actions together with a better use of our scientific economic and natural resources will add for a better and lasting global world. In our realization of nature “self realization” of every species is needed where the identification of small human self(s) with the wider self(S) will have to realized through diminishing of ego or narrow self(s).If we go through utilitarianism and deontological theories we will find that these theories mainly exploring the roots of anthropocentric which properties to human. Utilitarianism assumes that both pleasure and pain can be effectively measured and compared from human perspective. Deontological theory also says that there is a categorical Imperatives to treat all autonomous agents as an “end and never as a means” which includes only human centric. Thus, for the betterment of society we have to look through the ecological lens which includes class- free society in the entire ecosphere.

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