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The question of the essence of language, of course, is one of the most important issues of modern linguistics and all disciplines that are somehow connected with it. It is also of paramount importance for such a subject as the philosophy of language. However, in scientific circles, disputes on this issue are still ongoing. Therefore, this paper will consider several approaches, systems of views on the nature of language. The aim of the work is to introduce the nature, functions and structure of the language; lay the theoretical foundations for the study of other disciplines of the linguistic cycle; form understanding of the basic methods of linguistics; equip students with basic linguistic concepts and terms.