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This paper attempts to understand and analyze affirmative action policy in India. It highlights both the support and opposition from different sections of the society for the implementation and continuation of these policies in India. Affirmative action primarily helps societies to remove existing disparities based on caste, race and socio-economic conditions. It also has positive implications for the increase in literacy rate, improving the standard of living of individuals, and strengthening welfare measures of economically weaker sections. In recent years, the limits of affirmative action policies towards collective empowerment have resulted in their critical evaluation. The paper deals in detail with all these questions.