Main Article Content

Dr. Gautam Saha and Dr. Arpita Chatterjee


Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a complex group of neurodevelopment disorders characterized by impairments in communication skills, social skills and repetitive behavior. There are varieties of different therapeutic treatment options that are frequently used with people with Autism Spectrum Disorder. In the Clinic Brain Neuropsychiatric Institute & Research Center, Barasat, Kolkata, India, different management approached are taken for the treatment of ASD for betterment of life. These include: psychotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, special education, art therapy, music and movement therapy, animal therapy, etc.Since to date there is no specific medication developed to autism itself, the psycho-pharmacologic approach is addressed to some core symptoms, such as hyperactivity, anxiety, depression, etc. Psycho-pharmacotherapy can eventually improveadhesion to non-medical treatment of ASD patients. Occupational therapists (OT) offer a wide range of therapies for individuals with ASD on the basis of specific deficits and difficulties.In the evaluation and treatment of individuals with ASD, OT professionals tend to address ADLs, IADLs, adaptive behavior, rest and sleep, employment/pre-employment, and social participation.Over the last few decades, speech and language therapy, in particular the direct intervention type - the characteristic of which is the treatment directed to the abilities and inabilities of each child, has been emphasized as a means of social adjustment of communicational behavior. Simulation of the pragmatic level of language is possible in persons with ASD, it must be preceded by targeted diagnostics and assessment of individual components of the pragmatic level of language. Positive teacher attitudes are an important predictor of thesuccessful education of children with disabilities, including those with ASDs.However, the severity and pervasiveness ASD often leads tothe teaching and inclusion of this group of pupils to beseen as especially complex. Expressive Arts Therapy, specifically arts based therapeutic interventions can offer a unique and comprehensive approach to address a variety of the defining symptoms of autism and in doing so, may have the potential to improve relational capacity for those with the disorder. Art therapy can be used to address tactile and sensory integration, communication, emotion and affect regulation, as well as a way to practice social skills and increase the likelihood of bonding. The music-based interventions are effective treatment tools for individuals with ASDs because they harnessthe musical strengths of this population while alleviating their impairments. The music-based interventions particularly attractive for individuals with ASDs.The focus in recent research has shifted from the conventional use of animals for domestication purpose to clinical applications to improvise human well-being. Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) is a type of therapy that involves use of animals in the therapeutic or treatment process, also for the treatment of ASD.

Article Details