Self-assessment of school experiences and well-being of children with intellectual disabilities: An exploration of their cognitive, emotional and motivational dimensions and their school experiences to improve education policies

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Objective: The purpose of the present study is to explore the relationship of emotional, cognitive and motivational dimensions associated with learning experiences in the school context of children with atypical development (RM).

Method: Quantitative methodology based on psychometric assessment was the method used in the present study. Two types of questionnaires as the Self-Determination and Experience Questionnaire and Learning Climate Questionnaire (LCQ) were used that aim to identify the experience in cognitive, emotional and motivation dimensions as well as social support for achieving autonomy of students with atypical development. The study included 50 children in an age- range from 15 to 18 years, with an mean age of 16 years who attended 5 Educational Institutions of Tirana.


 Results showed a moderate level of anxiety in students with lower expectations of achievement in classroom tasks (Z = 2.285; Sig = 0.222) while higher in external activities (Z = 2.254; Sig = 0.433) . The Friedman test on profiles of experiences related to different activities reported significant differences between the five activities in the scale of expectations and performance (Chi square = 13,960; Sig = 0.007). The Wilcoxon test indices showed higher values ​​for activities within the class (Z = -2.727; Sig = 0.106) while the Mann - Whitney test data reveals no significant differences between MR levels. Two other clinically significant differences appeared in the Self-Determination and Experience Questionnaire where students with mild MR reported lower scores on task perception and understanding (Z = -2.052; Sig = 0.038) while those with moderate levels of MR reported lower levels of introjected motivation (Z = - 2.789, Sig = 0.005).

Conclusions: An internal coherence with the answers given by our sample, as well as the qualitative information collected in site, led us to confirm that more out-of-class assisted activities improve the cognitive, emotional and motivational dimensions of students with atypical development toward increased psychosocial well-being

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