Mathematics Self-Efficacy And Belief About Incremental And Entity Intelligence: A Study Of University Students In Gender Context

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Dr. Sadaf Naz , Dr. Habib Elahi , Dr. Asaf Niwaz


This study was designed to investigate the relationship of Mathematics self-efficacy and belief about incremental and entity intelligence among university students in Pakistan. It was a co-relational study having 450 (302 male and 148 female) students selected from seven public sector universities through stratified sampling technique. To achieve the desired objectives two research scales’ were used. Students’ academic achievement was measured by using their previous examination scores. The collected data was analyzed using t-test, and correlation analysis. The analyses of the study showed a significant positive correlation between students’ Mathematics Self-efficacy and belief about Incremental and Entity belief about intelligence. A high level of Mathematics Self-efficacy is associated with Incremental belief and low self-efficacy is associated with Entity belief about intelligence. There was a significant difference in students' self-efficacy and belief about incremental and entity intelligence. This study concluded that male students possess a significantly higher level of self-efficacy in mathematics and hold an incremental belief about their nature of intelligence than their female counterparts

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