Gender Inequality, GDP And Human Resource Development In Pakistan

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Tayyaba Naveed , Ramsha Anwer , Muhammad Zahir Faridi (Corresponding Author), Anam Saba , Naima Narmeen


Gender discrimination and human resources development are the top priority issues now a day. The present study aims at establishing the relationship between human resource development and gender inequality. The time period range from 1973 to 2022. Outcome variable is Human Resource Development Index (HDI) while input variables are gender inequality index (GII), foreign direct investment (FDI), consumer price index (CPI) and growth rate of gross domestic product (GDPGR). Time series data set is used for Pakistan economy. The ARDL technique is the most appropriate for model estimation. We have found that there exist long term relationship between gender inequality, economic progress in Pakistan and human development. The results interpret that gender inequality has negative relationship with human development. Further outcomes pointed out that consumer price index, gross domestic product and foreign direct investment have positive relationship with human development index in Pakistan. It is suggested that human resource quality may be improved by reducing gender inequality.

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