Attachment Styles, Self-Esteem, Internalizing And Externalizing Problems Among Hafiz And Non-Hafiz Adolescents

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Faiza , Prof. Dr. Zahid Mahmood (late) , Dr. Mirrat Gul Butt


The present comparative study focused on exploring attachment styles, self-esteem and the presence of internalizing and externalizing problems among hafiz and non-hafiz adolescents. A purposive sampling strategy was used to recruit 140 school-going participants consisting of 70 hafiz (35 girls and 35 boys; mean age= 15.21, SD= 1.57) and 70 non-hafiz (35 girls and 35 boys; mean age= 14.34, SD= 1.37) adolescents. The assessment measures employed in the study were Attachment Questionnaire for Children (AQC; Muris, 2001), Self-esteem Scale for School Children (SESC; Saleem, Mahmood, 2011) School Children Problem Scale (SCPS; Saleem & Mahmood, 2011) and demographic information sheet. Results indicated no significant difference between hafiz and non-hafiz population on internalizing, externalizing problems and level of self-esteem. Regression analysis showed that low level of self-esteem is strong positive predictor of both internalizing and externalizing problems among hafiz whereas among non-hafiz for only externalizing problems. Significant difference was found on demographic variables on attachment styles and internalizing and externalizing problems. This research has its implication in educational psychology in order to enhance self-esteem and motivation in education, school psychology; to improve academic achievement and consulting classroom behaviors, and counselling psychology in order to improve well-being and to ameliorate psychological problems.

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