Main Article Content
In the community of Inquiry (CoI) framework the causal relationship of three presences is tested and explored. Prior literature extensively evaluates the practice and research of online learning using the CoI framework. The present study adapted the scale for the measurement of CoI framework to evaluate the causal association between social, teaching, and cognitive presence. Empirical findings indicate the social and teaching presence influence the cognitive presence and social presence significantly and positively influence the teaching and social presence. The findings affirms that the teaching presence sustain and establish community of inquiry. The dynamic association among the latent constructs across the institutions and disciplines.