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Aim: To evaluate the pattern of ligature marks and their relationship to death mode
Materials and methods: This research comprised 100 instances. External and internal inspection of the corpse were among the observations made during the autopsy. The ligature material was investigated wherever it was present. The ligature marks were studied by an external examination of the neck. The skin above the ligature mark was transferred to Pathology for histological investigation to determine if the ligature mark was antemortem or postmortem.
Results: In the current research, total suspension was seen in 80 instances (80%), compared to 20 cases (20%) with partial suspension. Atypical ligature marks were seen in 85 instances (85%), whereas typical ligature marks were observed in 15 cases (15%). In the current research, soft ligature materials such as lungi, duppatta, saree, and so on were employed in 55 instances (55%) and hard ligature materials such as nylone rope in 13 cases, electric wire in 5 cases, coir rope in 25 cases, and plastic binder in 2 cases (45%). A running noose with a sliding knot was employed in 56 instances (56%) and a fixed knot in 44 cases (44%). In the current investigation, there was no fracture of the thyroid cartilage in 95 instances (95%) and only 5 cases (5%) had a fracture of the superior horn on the left side of the thyroid cartilage. In the current investigation, no fracture was found in 97 instances (97%) and only three cases (3%) indicated fracture of the greater cornu on the right side of the hyoid bone.
Conclusion: History, circumstantial evidence, examination of ligature material, ligature mark characters like a single, interrupted, oblique mark above the level of the thyroid cartilage with slipping of the ligature mark, periligature injuries, and other internal findings on dissection of the neck tissues all pointed to suicide in all of the cases of hanging that were studied.