Effects Of Online Learning Experience, Cognitive Presence And Psychological Well-Being Among University And College Students During Pandemic In Pakistan And KSA

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Anmol Riaz , Kashmala Zaman , Tayyaba Safdar , Sayed Shahbal , Aishah Raja Alsolami , Eqbal Abdullwahab Mohammad Alfi , Amal Hamoud Alamrani


The present study was conducted to study the relationship between online learning experience, cognitive presence and psychological well-being among university and college students during covid-19 pandemic. Online learning scale (Bernard et al., 2004), community of inquiry (Arbaugh et al., 2008) and psychological well-being scale (Ryff, 1989) were used for the collection of data from students including both males and females. The target population was students with the age range of 17-27 years. The study was conducted by using purposive-convenient sampling technique (N = 283). The results of the present study showed that online learning experience has a positive relationship with community of inquiry. Teaching presence, social presence and cognitive presence are significantly positively correlated with each other. Community of inquiry shows significant positive relation with online learning experience and they both shows significant negative relation with psychological well-being. Additionally, boys scored higher on online learning experience and teaching, social, and cognitive presence as compared to girls. However, there is no difference on psychological well being. The association between these variables holds importance in the life of students in online learning and helps them to deal with the problems and difficulties regarding their learning experience, cognitive presence and psychological well-being. 

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