Carok And The Cultural Hegemony Of Masculinity On Ethnic Madura, East Java-Indonesia

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Siti Aminah , Toetik Koesbardiati , Pudjio Santoso , Roikan


This paper describes the practice of carok which is still continuously practiced by ethnic Madurese in East Java, Indonesia. Carok and masculinity are double-edged swords because they are constructed by Madurese ethnic culture. How culture produces values ​​that must be upheld, maintained, and become sacred and even practiced in everyday life. The construction of masculinity inherent in the male gender influences the practice of carok. So that carok is legal and even legitimized by culture. The visibility of male-dominated cultural and criminal violence on ethnic Madurese is very important to study, explore, and explain using the lens of political sociology gender. The values ​​of masculinity, self-respect, shame and honor are values ​​that are championed by men and are justified by the prevailing culture as social norms. This study uses a qualitative method. Relying on individual in-depth interview data on the perpetrator's family, the man, and the victim's family, police officers, community leaders and using data from the results of focused group discussions (Focus Group Discussion) to collect carok perspectives according to the understanding and experience of the perpetrators and the views of community leaders and the police. as well as observations on the area where carok is located in four districts on Madura Island. All data were analyzed using interpretive methods by prioritizing carok thematic analysis. The conclusion of this study: there are internal (cultural) forces that encourage the values ​​of hegemonic masculinity to justify acts of violence called carok. This carok hegemony is reproduced by ethnic Madurese and has been transformed into hybrid violence. That is, cultural violence that is in the range of the private (social-cultural) and public/political realms. In this case, carok is not merely cultural violence, but is part of the gender construction of the Madurese ethnicity that places the value of masculinity in everyday life. Therefore, to reduce carok, what needs to be done is to deconstruct the concept and value of masculinity that can be realized in a culture that can function to promote a culture of tolerance and peace.

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