How Social Capital Varies With Socio-Demographic Factors In The High Mountainous Gilgit District, Pakistan?
Main Article Content
This paper investigates the variation in individual-level social capital concerning different socio-demographic factors in the northern high mountainous Gilgit district of Pakistan. This district is part of the high mountainous Gilgit-Baltistan, province situated in the extreme north of Pakistan on the intersection of Karakoram, Hindu Kush, and Himalaya’s Mountain ranges. The major objective of this study was to measure and analyze the variation in individual-level social capital through different dimensions (trust, participation, networking, and civic action) concerning socio-demographic factors (education, age, gender, income, and residential status). By surveying 400 individuals through a systematic random sampling technique, we found that the individual-level social capital and its proposed dimensions in the Gilgit district vary with socio-demographic factors. Descriptive results reveal that individuals with higher educational levels have more access to the stocks of social capital as compared to individuals with a low level of education. Male respondents possess more social capital as compared to female counterparts and also aboriginals possess more social capital than the settlers. Whereas age has a linear relationship with social capital; with the increase in age social capital also increases. Furthermore, the empirical results of OLS regression show that almost all variables are highly significant. The coefficient of age shows that age has a significant positive impact on social capital. However, income has no role in determining social capital (as the t-value for the coefficient of income is less than 1). The results further show that all the coefficients of educational level are statistically significant and positive. It reveals that with the increase in the level of education social capital also increases. The coefficient of gender is also significant having a negative sign. It indicates that females possess a low level of social capital as compared to males. Finally, the coefficient of residential status shows that settlers have a low level of social capital as compared to the non-settlers and aboriginals in district Gilgit.