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Introduction: Uniparentally inherited molecular markers for forensics and other applications where human identification from tainted samples is a crucial problem. The current study aimed to identify region-specific mitochondrial haplotypes for human identification from complex samples by assessing the Precision ID mtDNA panels, examining maternal lineages, and investigating prehistoric migration episodes in Indian populations.
Materials and Methods: We considered 40 unrelated people from India's Eastern, Northern, Western, and Southern regions when processing the extracted DNA samples to resemble forensic specimens. In addition, 38 Indian sequences had already been for the haplotype-based evaluation of mtDNA-based markers.
Results: Among those investigated, the mitochondrial macro-haplogroup M predominated (58%). Due to their distinct coalescent histories, we projected various expansion dates for North Indians (26kya), East Indians (22kya), and West Indians (15kya). However, because of frequent free mingling and the quick expansion of the Indo-European language, these populations are admixed and lack any meaningful subpopulation structure. Due to the high incidence of endogamy in this area, we found a substantially older expansion time (28kya) and minimal genetic variation among South Indians. Finally, we have discovered seven hotspot sites relevant for human identification: five West Indian-specific (16069, 16169, 16206, 215 & 243), four North Indian-specific (16170, 16181, 16185 & 285), three East Indian-specific (16224, 16344 & 41), and one South Indian-specific (480). To validate the results of this pilot-scale study, however, a more in-depth investigation with a bigger cohort and a variety of genetic markers is required.
Conclusion: The Precision ID CR panel for human identification by this comprehensive pilot-scale genetic investigation evaluates the Precision ID mtDNA panels on unrelated individuals from four zones of India.