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Diabetes is a growing public health concern, increasing in prevalence and eroding quality of life and burdening the healthcare system. It is a major risk factor for cognitive decline. Maintaining good glycaemic control, which can be achieved by self-management, can help to prevent or delay diabetes complications. The ability to carry out self-management tasks requires the use of a variety of cognitive skills. But decline in cognitive functions, as literature shows, can hinder these tasks and might pose new challenges to diabetes self-management and glycaemic control. In light of this, the present study aims to examine the relationship between executive functioning and self-management among people with type 2 diabetes. The study was conducted on a sample of 100 diabetic and 70 non-diabetic control participants with the age range of 40 to 60 years, purposely drawn from the Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Sir Sundarlal Hospital, BHU, Varanasi (UP).The study was approved by the Ethical committee, IMS, BHU. The participants were administered the ‘Demographic and Clinical Profile’, the “Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (Adult-A)-Self-Report Form” and the “Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire”. The result revealed significant differences in executive functioning between diabetic and non-diabetic control groups, as well as a strong negative relationship between executive functioning and diabetes self-management among people with type 2 diabetes.