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Seaweed farming is an alternative livelihood option for the small-scale coastal fishing communities in Zanzibar. More than 80% of the women are engaged in seaweed farming and contribute to livelihoods of small-scale fisher households. The seaweed farmer faces some challenges such as lack of finance, frequent seaweed die-offs, consequence of climate change and social conflict between seaweed farmers and other marine resources users. The study aims to examine how women participation in seaweed farming contributes to the livelihoods of seaweed farmers in Zanzibar. A face to face survey was conducted to obtain data for the study from the selected respondents using a structured questionnaire. The study used partial least square (PLS) technique and regression analysis. The results of the study showed that seaweed farmers have greater access to livelihood assets and increased household income. The study recommends that it is important for the government to take into consideration for the provision of financial assistance, production equipment and training for livelihood improvement of small-scale fisher households in Zanzibar.