AbstractThe Purna Health Management System (PHMS) is an integrated holistic system for health management, based on ancient Vedic philosophy and developed by Professor, Dr. Sri Svami Purna Maharaj. The current case study used an anonymous online survey to determine which aspects of the PHMS practitioners perceived as fostering wellbeing. The PHMS has four key factors: health, fitness, and nutrition (HF&N) (good food, good sleep, good exercise); life balance [stress management] (LB-SM) (good mind, good human interaction, good relationships, good deeds); spiritual growth and development (SG&D) (good meditation and contemplation); and living in harmony with the natural environment to support health (LHWNE) (good interaction with plants and animals, sustaining the environment). Relationships were tested between perceived wellbeing from key factors and years of implementation, suggested PHMS activities engaged in, and self-reported outcomes (physical health, mental/emotional health, overall stress, and ability to manage stress). Forty-one participants completed the survey. Those implementing the PHMS longer reported increased wellbeing for LB-SM (rs = .45, p< .001) and SG&D (rs = .57, p< .001). Participants eating more healthy foods in a week reported increased wellbeing for LB-SM (rs = .32, p< .05). Participants implementing more spiritual practices and practices to live in harmony with the environment in a week reported increased wellbeing for SG&D (both rs = .32, p< .05). No correlations were found between wellbeing and self-reported outcomes. Findings suggested the PHMS may support the perception of wellbeing in practitioners, especially when used regularly.
Adhyatmik Foundation. (2018). About Dr Svami Purna. Retrieved from http://www.adhyatmik.org/dr-svami-purna.html
Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822-848. doi: 10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1992.
Carmody, J., & Baer, R. A. (2008). Relationships between mindfulness practice and levels of mindfulness, medical and psychological symptoms and well-being in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 31(1), 23-33. doi: 10.1007/s10865-007-9130-7
Chaudhary, A., Gustafson, D., & Mathys, A. (2018). Multi-indicator sustainability assessment of global food systems. Nature Communications, 9(1), 848–860. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03308-7
Crowe, S., Creswell, K., Robertson, A., Huby, G., Avery, A., & Sheikh, A. (2011). The case study approach. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 11(1), 100. doi:1471-2288/11/100
Cunningham, N. A., Cunningham, T. R., Roberston, J. M., & Heyn, P. C. (2018). Understanding and measuring the wellbeing of carers of people with dementia. The Gerontologist. 0(0), 1–13. doi:10.1093/geront/gny018
Damianakis, T., Wilson, K., & Marziali, E. (2018). Family caregiver support groups: Spiritual reflections’ impact on stress management. Aging and Mental Health, 22(1), 70–76. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2016.1231169
Das, S., Punnoose, V. P., Doval, N., & Nair, V. Y. (2018). Spirituality, religiousness and coping in patients with schizophrenia: A cross sectional study in a tertiary care hospital. Psychiatry Research, 265, 238–243. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.04.030
Dierendonck, D. V., & Mohan, K. (2006). Some thoughts on spirituality and eudaimonic well-being. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 9(3), 227–238. doi: 10.1080/13694670600615383
Dodge, R., Daly, A., Huyton, J., & Sanders, L. (2012). The challenge of defining wellbeing. International Journal of Wellbeing, 2(3), 222–235. doi: 10.5502/ijw.v2i3.4
Erikson, E. H. (1959). Identity and the life cycle. New York, NY: International Universities Press. doi: 10.1080/21674086.1960.11926165
Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56(3), 218-226. doi: 10.1037//0003-066x.56.3.218
Fry, P. S. (2000). Religious involvement, spirituality and personal meaning for life: Existential predictors of psychological wellbeing in community-residing and institutional care elders. Aging & Mental Health, 4(4), 375–387. doi: 10.1080/713649965
Gable, S. L., & Haidt, J. (2005). What (and why) is positive psychology?. Review of General Psychology, 9(2), 103-110. doi: 10.1037/1089-26188.8.131.52
Galante, J., Dufour, G., Vainre, M., Wagner, A. P., Stochl, J., Benton, A., ... & Jones, P. B. (2018). A mindfulness-based intervention to increase resilience to stress in university students (the Mindful Student Study): A pragmatic randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Public Health, 3(2), e72-e81. doi: 10.1016/s2468-2667(17)30231-1
Gökhan, N., Meehan, E. F., & Peters, K. (2010). The value of mindfulness-based methods in teaching at a clinical field placement. Psychological Reports, 106(2), 455-466. doi: .2466/pr0.106.2.455-466
Goyal, M., Singh, S., Sibinga, E. M., Gould, N. F., Rowland-Seymour, A., Sharma, R., ... Ranasinghe, P. D. (2014). Meditation programs for psychological stress and well-being: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association Internal Medicine, 174(3), 357–368. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.13018
Hanh, T. N. (2016). The miracle of mindfulness: An introduction to the practice of meditation. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Havighurst, R. J. (1972). Developmental tasks and education (3rd ed.). New York, NY: David McKay Company.
Hone, L. C., Jarden, A., Schofield, G. M., & Duncan, S. (2014). Measuring flourishing: The impact of operational definitions on the prevalence of high levels of wellbeing. International Journal of Wellbeing, 4(1), 62–90. doi: 10.5502/ijw.v4i1.4
Jamison, S. W., & Witzel, M. (2003). Vedic Hinduism. In A. Sharma (Ed.), The study of Hinduism (pp. 65–113). Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press.
Jeanguenat, A. M., & Dror, I. E. (2018). Human factors effecting forensic decision making: Workplace stress and well‐being. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 63(1), 258–261. doi: 10.1111/1556-4029.13533
Kabat-Zinn, J., Lipworth, L., & Burney, R. (1985). The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic pain. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 8(2), 163-190. doi: 10.1007/bf00845519
Kamitsis, I., & Francis, A. J. (2013). Spirituality mediates the relationship between engagement with nature and psychological wellbeing. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 36, 136–143. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2013.07.013
Kansky, J., & Diener, E. (2017). Benefits of well-being: Health, social relationships, work, and resilience. Journal of Positive Psychology and Wellbeing, 1(2), 129-169.
Kok, B. E., Coffey, K. A., Cohn, M. A., Catalino, L. I., Vacharkulksemsuk, T., Algoe, S. B., ... Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). How positive emotions build physical health: Perceived positive social connections account for the upward spiral between positive emotions and vagal tone. Psychological Science, 24(7), 1123–1132. doi: 10.1177/0956797612470827
Kristeller, J. L., & Wolever, R. Q. (2010). Mindfulness-based eating awareness training for treating binge eating disorder: The conceptual foundation. Eating Disorders, 19(1), 49-61. doi: 10.1080/10640266.2011.533605
Lalani, N., Duggleby, W., & Olson, J. (2018). Spirituality among family caregivers in palliative care: An integrative literature review. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 24(2), 80–91. doi: 10.12968/ijpn.2018.24.2.80
Lee, V., Finestone, J., Rossiter, H., & Reilly, R. (2018). When third spaces become therapeutic: The value of complementary therapies and the search for meaning in tertiary care cancer. International Journal of Whole Person Care, 5(1), 40-41. doi: 10.26443/ijwpc.v5i1.156
Lifshitz, R., Nimrod, G., & Bachner, Y. G. (2018). Spirituality and wellbeing in later life: A multidimensional approach. Aging and Mental Health. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2018.1460743
Linley, P. A., Joseph, S., Harrington, S., & Wood, A. M. (2006). Positive psychology: Past, present, and (possible) future. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1(1), 3-16. doi: 10.1080/17439760500372796
Liu, R. H. (2013). Health-promoting components of fruits and vegetables in the diet. Advances in Nutrition, 4(3), 384S–392S. doi: 10.3945/an.112.003517
Lucas, A. R., Klepin, H. D., Porges, S. W., & Rejeski, W. J. (2018). Mindfulness-based movement: A polyvagal perspective. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 17(1), 5-15. doi: 10.1177/1534735416682087
McGuire, A. P., Erickson, T. M., Quach, C. M., & Willey, B. (2018). Gratitude for better or worse: Differential predictors and affective outcomes of state gratitude in positive and negative contexts. Journal of Positive Psychology and Wellbeing, 1-19. Retrieved from http://journalppw.com/index.php/JPPW/article/view/91.
McMahan, E. A., & Estes, D. (2015). The effect of contact with natural environments on positive and negative affect: A meta-analysis. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10(6), 507-519. doi: 10.1080/17439760.2014.994224
McMahan, E., Estes, D., Murfin, J. S., & Bryan, C. M. (2018). Nature connectedness moderates the effect of nature exposure on explicit and implicit measures of emotion. Journal of Positive Psychology and Wellbeing, 2(2), 128-148. Retrieved from http://www.journalppw.com/index.php/JPPW/article/view/54
Molek-Winiarska, D., & Żołnierczyk-Zreda, D. (2018). Application of mindfulness-based stress reduction to a stress management intervention in a study of a mining sector company. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/10803548.2018.1452843
Nisbet, M. (2016). The Mindfulness Movement. Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved from https://www.csicop.org/si/show/the_mindfulness_movement
Parry, D. A., Oeppen, R. S., Amin, M., & Brennan, P. A. (2018). Can dietary supplements improve a clinician’s well-being and health? British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 56(2), 85–89. doi: 10.1016/j.bjoms.2017.12.002
Patañjali. (1999). Patanjali yoga sutras. Chennai, India: Sri Ramakrishna Math.
Piet, J., & Hougaard, E. (2011). The effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for prevention of relapse in recurrent major depressive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(6), 1032-1040. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2011.05.002
Purna, S. (2008). Balanced yoga: The twelve week programme. New Dehli, India: New Age Books.
Purna, S. (2010). Practical wisdom. New Delhi, India: New Age Books.
Purna, S. (2012). The truth will set you free. New Delhi, India: New Age Books.
Purna, S. (2013). So you shall know the truth: A collection of discourses. New Dehli, India: New Age Books.
Purna, S. (2014). Life: A mysterious journey. New Delhi, India: New Age Books.
Purna, S. (2017, October 15) Divine dialogues telecast [mp3 recording]. Hawley, PA: Adhyatmik Foundation.
Purnahealth.org (2013). Purna Health Management System. Retrieved from http://purnahealth.org/purna-health-management-system/.
Roulston, A., Montgomery, L., Campbell, A., & Davidson, G. (2018). Exploring the impact of mindfulnesss on mental wellbeing, stress and resilience of undergraduate social work students. Social Work Education, 37(2), 157–172. doi: 10.1080/02615479.2017.1388776
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 141–166. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.141
Ryff, C. D., Singer, B. H., & Love, G. D. (2004). Positive health: Connecting well-being with biology. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 359(1449), 1383–1394. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2004.1521
Sandifer, P. A., Sutton-Grier, A. E., & Ward, B. P. (2015). Exploring connections among nature, biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human health and well-being: Opportunities to enhance health and biodiversity conservation. Ecosystem Services, 12, 1–15. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2014.12.007
Saxe, G. A., Major, J. M., Nguyen, J. Y., Freeman, K. M., Downs, T. M., & Salem, C. E. (2006).
Potential attenuation of disease progression in recurrent prostate cancer with plant-based diet and stress reduction. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 5(3), 206–213. doi: 10.1177/1534735406292042
Schnitker, S. A., & Richardson, K. L. (2018). Framing gratitude journaling as prayer amplifies its hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, but not health, benefits. Journal of Positive Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/17439760.2018.1460690
Schulz, E., (2018). How a Himalayan Master and teacher promotes healthy behavior among His followers in the Vedic tradition. International Journal of Studies in Nursing, 3(1), 56-67. http://journal.julypress.com/index.php/ijsn/article/view/280/228
Schulz, E. K. (2015). The Purna Health Management System: Vedic wisdom for everyday life (Master’s Thesis, Prescott College).
Seligman, M. E., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60(5), 410-421. doi: 10.1037/0003-066x.60.5.410
Shapiro, S. L., Astin, J. A., Bishop, S. R., & Cordova, M. (2005). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for health care professionals: results from a randomized trial. International Journal of Stress Management, 12(2), 164-176. doi.org/10.1037/1072-5245.12.2.164
Sheldon, K. M., & King, L. (2001). Why positive psychology is necessary. American Psychologist, 56(3), 216-217. doi: 10.1037//0003-066x.56.3.216
Sisk, D. A. (2017). Mindfulness and Its Role in Psychological Well-Being. Psychology, 7(10),
-535. doi: 10.17265/2159-5542/2017.10.002
Southon, G. E., Jorgensen, A., Dunnett, N., Hoyle, H., & Evans, K. L. (2018). Perceived species-richness in urban green spaces: Cues, accuracy and well-being impacts. Landscape and Urban Planning, 172, 1–10. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2017.12.002
Spedding, L. (2012). Purna Health Management System: Overview. Hawley, PA: Adhyatmik Foundation.
Spedding, L. (2013). Balanced nutrition. Hawley, PA: Adhyatmik Foundation.
Spedding, L. (2014a). Balanced emotions. Hawley, PA: Adhyatmik Foundation.
Spedding, L. (2014b). Balanced sleep. Hawley, PA: Adhyatmik Foundation.
Spedding, L. (2015). Balanced mind. Hawley, PA: Adhyatmik Foundation.
Stebbins, R. A. (2018). Leisure and the positive psychological states. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 13(1), 8-17. doi: 10.1080/17439760.2017.1374444
Stebbins, R. A. (2018). Leisure and the positive psychological states. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 13(1), 8-17. doi: 10.1080/17439760.2017.1374444
Stevenson, J. C., Millings, A., & Emerson, L. M. (2018). Psychological well-being and coping: The predictive value of adult attachment, dispositional mindfulness, and emotion regulation. Mindfulness, 1-16. doi: 10.1007/s12671-018-0970-8
Sutliffe, J. T., Carnot, M. J., Fuhrman, J. H., Sutliffe, C. A., & Scheid, J. C. (2018). A worksite nutrition intervention is effective at improving employee well-being: A pilot study. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2018, 8187203. doi: 10.1155/2018/8187203
Tuso, P. J., Ismail, M. H., Ha, B. P., & Bartolotto, C. (2013). Nutritional update for physicians: Plant-based diets. The Permanente Journal, 17(2), 61–66. doi: 10.7812/tpp/12-085
van den Berg, A. E., & Staats, H. (2018). Environmental psychology. In M. van den Bosch & W. Bird (Eds.), Oxford textbook of nature and public health: The role of nature in improving the health of a population (pp. 51–56). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/med/9780198725916.003.0035
Vipassana Meditation (2018). About Vipassana. Retrieved from https://www.dhamma.org/en-US/about/vipassana
Wagani, R., & Colucci, E. (2018). Spirituality and wellbeing in the context of a study on suicide prevention in North India. Religions, 9(6), 1–18. doi: 10.3390/rel9060183
Wiese, C. W., Kuykendall, L., & Tay, L. (2018). Get active? A meta-analysis of leisure-time physical activity and subjective well-being. Journal of Positive Psychology, 13(1), 57–66. doi: 10.1080/17439760.2017.1374436
Yadav, I., & Kumar, A. (2018). Balancing work and parenting demands through spiritual practices. Research Journal of Social Sciences, 9(5), 73–80. Retrieved from www.aensi.in/assets/uploads/doc/2a883-73-80.14087.pdf
Zhang, J. W., Howell, R. T., & Iyer, R. (2014). Engagement with natural beauty moderates the positive relation between connectedness with nature and psychological well-being. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 38, 55-63. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2013.12.013