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Jordan faces extreme water scarcity. Jordan is taking steps to ensure water security, including increasing citizen water scarcity awareness. This study sought to understand refugees and Jordanians’ base water knowledge to enhance awareness and conservation efforts. A stratified random sample of 389 Jordanian citizens and refugees were surveyed to understand their water resource management and transboundary water partnership knowledge and perspectives. Questionnaires were utilized to gather responses which were then scored on a knowledge index and an optimism index, a measure of positive perspectives. Jordanians scored an average of 54% on the water knowledge index and 45% on the water optimism index. Refugees scored an average of 58% on the knowledge index and 51% on the optimism index. Respondents understood that conservation is important due to growing water scarcity but lacked specific knowledge about what scarcity would mean for water resources in Jordan and the Jordan river basin region.