Research Articles

Linking Recent Discrimination-Related Experiences and Wellbeing via Social Cohesion and Resilience

Estefania Florez, Keren Cohen, Nelli Ferenczi, Karina Linnell, Joda Lloyd, Lorna Goddard , Madoka Kumashiro, Jonathan Freeman

Journal of Positive School Psychology , Vol. 4 No. 1-Sup1 (2020), 10 July 2020, Page 92-104

The current study examined the relationship between recent experiences of discrimination and wellbeing and the mediating effects that social cohesion and resilience had on this relationship. Using online sampling, participants (N= 255) from a South London community rated the levels of discrimination related experiences in the past 6 months, alongside measures of social cohesion, resilience, and wellbeing (happiness and depressive symptoms). Results revealed a negative relationship between recent experiences of discrimination and wellbeing which was explained by a serial mediation relationship between social cohesion and resilience, and singly by resilience alone. The study highlights how recent experiences of discrimination can lead to a depletion of personal resources and social resources (which in turn also lead to reduced personal resources) and in turn, to lower levels of wellbeing.

Understanding Holistic Wellness from a Midlife Perspective: A Factor Analytic Study

Erin Dupuis, Thomas Foster

Journal of Positive School Psychology , Vol. 4 No. 1-Sup1 (2020), 10 July 2020, Page 105-116

The purpose of this study was to determine the dimensions of holistic wellness that would emerge in a sample of midlife adults (N= 269, Mage = 52 years) using the Perceived Wellness Survey and to assess if these dimensions related to developmental theories of midlife. Results from an exploratory principal-axis factor analysis indicated a four-factor solution of wellness for midlife adults (i.e., Physical Wellness, Affiliative Security, Cognitive Competence, and Optimism). Individuals who scored higher on these factors showed greater perception of cognitive and physical capacity, optimism, and greater social interaction. These results are compared to previous results with other developmental cohorts. Implications for how these findings relate to wellbeing, successful aging, and social support theory are discussed, as well as suggestions for clinical practice and future research. By gaining a better understanding of how midlife adults perceive holistic wellness, mental health professionals can synthesize this with their clinical approach.

Review Articles

Profiles of Adjustment in Children and Adolescents Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: A Scoping Review Investigating Resilience Processes

Margherita Cameranesi, Caroline C. Piotrowski, Douglas A. Brownridge

Journal of Positive School Psychology , Vol. 4 No. 1-Sup1 (2020), 10 July 2020, Page 117-136

Even though the negative sequelae of childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) have been largely established empirically, recent person-centered investigations have shown that young people who experience IPV at home represent a heterogeneous population including different subgroups of individuals with distinct profiles of adjustment. This comprehensive scoping review synthesizes and critically analyzes research on profiles of adjustment in children and adolescents exposed to IPV, with an emphasis on resilience profiles and the factors that promoted more positive outcomes. We searched for relevant research studies across five major bibliographic citation electronic databases, as well as reference lists of included articles, key printed journals, and the grey literature. A total of 13 research studies met our inclusion criteria and therefore were included in this scoping review. At least one “resilient profile” of adjustment was consistently identified across studies, which included between 13% and 67% of participants. Resilient profiles were typically characterized by the absence of adjustment problems and high functioning (e.g., high self-esteem, self-efficacy, and constructive problem-solving abilities) among children and adolescents exposed to IPV. All included studies also identified a number of individual-level, family-level, and environmental-level factors that were significantly associated with resilient adjustment among study participants. Based on the results of our review, we offered recommendations for practice, policy, and research.