AbstractMost empirical studies of mindfulness have focused on the relation between mindfulness and decreased maladaptive outcomes (e.g. depression, anxiety, somatization disorders), and relatively fewer have examined the mechanisms linking dispositional mindfulness with adaptive outcomes such as well-being (e.g., happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect). The goal of this study was to address this gap in our understanding by testing a theoretical model in which two distinct types of self-regulation (goal-directed self-regulation and cognitive emotion dysregulation) and perceived stress would mediate the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and well-being in a sample of 442 young adults. As hypothesized, goal-directed self-regulation partially mediated the relation between dispositional mindfulness and well-being. Additionally, self-regulation variables fully mediated the link between dispositional mindfulness and perceived stress. There was also an indirect relation between goal-directed self-regulation and well-being, through perceived stress. When these mediators were included in the model, the direct relation between dispositional mindfulness and well-being became smaller but was still present. Further, the hypothesized multi-step mediation model fit significantly better and improved the data fit indices versus the single-step mediation model comparator. Taken together, these data supported a meaningful role of self-regulatory processes and perceived stress in explaining the role of dispositional mindfulness in promoting well-being.
Arch, J., & Craske, M. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness: Emotion regulation following a focused breathing induction. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(12), 1849-1858. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2005.12.007
Atanes A. C., Andreoni S., Hirayama M. S., Montero-Marin J., Barros V. V., Ronzani T. M., Kozasa, E. H., Soler, J., Cebolla, A., Garcia-Campayo, J., Demarzo, M. M. (2015). Mindfulness, perceived stress, and subjective well-being: a correlational study in primary care health professionals. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 15 (2), 303-310. doi: 10.1186/s12906-015-0823-0
Baer, R. A. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27-45. doi: 10.1177/1073191105283504
Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27-45. doi: 13/1/27 [pii] 10.1177/1073191105283504.
Bishop, S. R. (2002). What do we really know about Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction? Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 71-84.
Branstrom, R., Duncan, L. G., & Moskowitz, J. T. (2010). The association between dispositional mindfulness, psychological well-being, and perceived health in a Swedish population-based sample. British Journal of Health Psychology. doi: bjhp797 [pii] 10.1348/135910710X501683
Brown, J. M., Miller, W. R., & Lawendowski, L. A. (1999). The self-regulation questionnaire. In L. VandeCreek & T. L. Jackson (Eds.), Innovations in clinical practice: A sourcebook (Vol. 17, pp. 281-292). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press/Professional Resource Exchange.
Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822-848. doi: 10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1992
Carmody, J., & Baer, R. A. (2008). Relationships between mindfulness practice and levels of mindfulness, medical and psychological symptoms and well-being in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 31(1), 23-33. doi: 10.1007/s10865-007-9130-7
CDC Health-Related Quality of Life Well-being Concepts (2016, April 9). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/hrqol/wellbeing.htm#four
Ciesla J.A., Reilly L.C., Dickson K.S., Emanuel A.S., & Updegraff J.A. (2012). Dispositional mindfulness moderates the effects of stress among adolescents: rumination as a mediator. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 41(6), 760-70. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2012.698724
Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. [Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24(4), 385-396.
Desrosiers, A., Vine, V., Klemanski, D. H., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2013). Mindfulness and emotion regulation in depression and anxiety: common and distinct mechanisms of action. Depression and Anxiety, 30(7),654-61. doi: 10.1002/da.22124
Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95(3):542-75.
Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. (2003). Personality, culture, and subjective well-being: Emotional and cognitive evaluations of life. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 403-425.
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Karbon, M., Murphy, B. C., Wosinski, M., Polazzi, L., . . . Juhnke, C. (1996). The relations of children's dispositional prosocial behavior to emotionality, regulation, and social functioning. [Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]. Child Development, 67(3), 974-992.
Evans, S. (2010). Review: mindfulness-based therapies effective for anxiety and depression. Evidence Based Mental Health, 13(4), 116. doi: 13/4/116 [pii] 10.1136/ebmh.13.4.116
Garnefski, N., & Kraaij, V. (2007). The cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire - psychometric features and prospective relationships with depression and anxiety in adults. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 23(3), 141-149. doi: Doi 10.1027/1015-57188.8.131.52
Goldin, P. R., & Gross, J. J. (2010). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder. Emotion, 10(1), 83-91. doi: 2010-01983-016 [pii] 10.1037/a0018441
Gu, J., Strauss, C., Bond, R., & Cavanagh, K. (2015). How do mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness‐based stress reduction improve mental health and well-being? A systematic review and meta‐analysis of mediation studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 37, 1–12.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Hofmann, S. G., Sawyer, A. T., Witt, A. A., & Oh, D. (2010). The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology, 78(2), 169-183. doi: 2010-05835-004 [pii] 10.1037/a0018555
Hölzel, B. K., Lazar, S. W., Gard, T., Schuman-Olivier, Z., Vago, D. R., & Ott, U. (2011). How does mindfulness meditation work? Proposing mechanisms of action from a conceptual and neural perspective. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 537–559. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1745691611419671
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology Science and Practice, 10(2), 144-156. doi: DOI 10.1093/clipsy/bpg016
Kieviet-Stijnen, A., Visser, A., Garssen, B., & Hudig, W. (2008). Mindfulness-based stress reduction training for oncology patients: patients' appraisal and changes in well-being. Patient Education and Counseling, 72(3), 436-442. doi: S0738-3991(08)00261-9 [pii] 10.1016/j.pec.2008.05.015
Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (4th ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.
Lakhan, S. E., & Schofield, K. L. (2013). Mindfulness-based therapies in the treatment of somatization disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE, 8(8), e71834. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071834
Lykins, E., & Baer, R. (2009). Psychological functioning in a sample of long-term practitioners of mindfulness meditation. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23(3), 226-241.
Marchand, W. R. (2014). Neural mechanisms of mindfulness and meditation: Evidence from neuroimaging studies. World Journal of Radiology, 6(7), 471-9. doi: 10.4329/wjr.v6.i7.471
Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (1998). Mplus User's Guide. Los Angeles: Muthen & Muthen.
Paul, N. A., Stanton, S. J., Greeson, J. M., Smoski, M. J., & Wang, L. (2013). Psychological and neural mechanisms of trait mindfulness in reducing depression vulnerability. Social Cognitive Affective Neuroscience, 8(1), 56-64. doi: 10.1093/scan/nss070
Puterman, E., Lin, J., Blackburn, E., O'Donovan, A., Adler, N., & Epel, E. (2010). The power of exercise: Buffering the effect of chronic stress on telomere length. PLoS ONE, 5(5), e10837. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010837
Raykov, T., & Marcoulides, G. A. (2006). A first course in structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Rotenberg, S., & McGrath, J. J. (2016) Inter-relation between autonomic and HPA axis activity in children and adolescents. Biological Psychology, 117:16-25. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2016.01.015
Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Lawlor, M. S. (2010). The Effects of a Mindfulness-Based Education Program on Pre- and Early Adolescents’ Well-Being and Social and Emotional Competence. Mindfulness, 1(3), 137-151. doi: 10.1007/s12671-010-0011-8
Schreiber, J. B. (2008). Core reporting practices in structural equation modeling. [Review]. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 4(2), 83-97. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2007.04.003
Segrin, C., Hanzal, A., Donnerstein, C., Taylor, M., & Domschke, T. J. (2007) Social skills, psychological well-being, and the mediating role of perceived stress. Anxiety Stress Coping, 20(3):321-9.
Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L. E., Astin, J. A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 373-386. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20237
Sheldon, K. M., & Cooper, M. L. (2008). Goal striving within agentic and communal roles: separate but functionally similar pathways to enhanced well-being. [Comparative Study Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]. Journal of Personality, 76(3), 415-448. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2008.00491.x
Sheldon, K. M., & Houser-Marko, L. (2001). Self-concordance, goal attainment, and the pursuit of happiness: can there be an upward spiral? [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(1), 152-165.
Sheldon, K. M., Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Kasser, T. (2004). The independent effects of goal contents and motives on well-being: it's both what you pursue and why you pursue it. [Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(4), 475-486. doi: 10.1177/0146167203261883
Strauss, C., Cavanagh, K., Oliver, A., & Pettman, D. (2014). Mindfulness-Based Interventions for People Diagnosed with a Current Episode of an Anxiety or Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials. PLoS ONE, 9(4): e96110. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096110
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2012). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Teasdale, J. D., Moore, R. G., Hayhurst, H., Pope, M., Williams, S., & Segal, Z. V. (2002). Metacognitive awareness and prevention of relapse in depression: empirical evidence. [Clinical Trial Comparative Study Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(2), 275-287.
Vago, D. R., & Silbersweig, D. A. (2012). Self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-transcendence (S-ART): a framework for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 296. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00296
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063-1070.