Loneliness, college belongingness, subjective vitality, and psychological adjustment during coronavirus pandemic: Development of the College Belongingness Questionnaire
Journal of Positive School Psychology ,
Vol. 5 No. 1 (2021),
13 April 2021
AbstractLoneliness is a serious risk factor for healthy development and flourishing. Although loneliness has been revealed to play an important role in psychological health and well-being, little is known about moderating and mitigating mechanisms underlying this association, especially during adverse experiences (e.g., COVID-19 pandemic). The current study purposed to explore whether subjective vitality mediated the association of loneliness with psychological adjustment and whether college belongingness moderated the mediating effect of subjective vitality on students’ adjustment in the context of loneliness. The study sample comprised 333 undergraduate students (69% female) from a public university in Turkey. They ranged in age between 19 and 41 years (M= 21.94, SD= 4.15). Findings from mediation analysis revealed that loneliness had a significant predictive effect on subjective vitality and psychological adjustment challenges. Subjective vitality also mediated the effect of loneliness on the psychological adjustment of college students. Further, college belongingness moderated the mediating effect of subjective vitality on adjustment and had a protective effect on the association between loneliness and subjective vitality in college students. These results indicate that subjective vitality and college belongingness are important mechanisms that may help develop prevention and intervention strategies to foster students’ psychological health and well-being in university settings.
- COVID-19, loneliness, subjective vitality, psychological adjustment, college belongingness, university students
How to Cite
Akin, A. (2012). The relationships between internet addiction, subjective vitality, and subjective happiness. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 8(10), 404-410 https://doi.org/ 10.1089/cyber. 2011.0609
Ak?n, A., & Ak?n, U. (2015). Friendship quality and subjective happiness: The mediator role of subjective vitality. E?itim ve Bilim, 40(177), 233-242. https://doi.org/10.15390/EB.2015.3786
Akin, Ü., Akin, A., & U?ur, E. (2016). Mediating role of mindfulness on the associations of friendship quality and subjective vitality. Psychological Reports 119(2), 516-526. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 0033294116661 273
Alkan, N. (2016). Psychological sense of university membership: An adaptation study of the PSSM Scale for Turkish university students. The Journal of Psychology, 150(4), 431–449. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/00223980.2015.1087373
Allen, K.-A., Vella-Brodrick, D., & Waters, L. (2016). Fostering school belonging in secondary schools using a socio-ecological framework. The Educational and Developmental Psychologist, 33(1), 97–121. https://doi.org/10.1017/edp.201 6.5
Arslan, G. (2019). School belonging in adolescents: Exploring the associations with school achievement and internalising and externalising problems. Educational and Child Psychology, 36(4), 22–33.
Arslan, G. (2020). School belongingness, well?being, and mental health among adolescents: Exploring the role of loneliness. Australian Journal of Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajpy.12274
Arslan, G., & Duru, E. (2017). Initial development and validation of the School Belongingness Scale. Child Indicators Research, 10(4), 1043–1058. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-016-9414-y
Arslan, G., & Tanhan, A. (2019). Ergenlerde okul aidiyeti, okul i?levleri ve psikolojik uyum aras?ndaki ili?kinin incelenmesi. Ya?ad?kça E?itim, 33(2), 318–332. https://doi.org/10.33 308/26674874.2019332127
Arslan, G., Y?ld?r?m, M., & Aytaç, M. (2020). Subjective vitality and loneliness explain how coronavirus anxiety increases rumination among college students. Death studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2020.1824204
Arslan, G., Allen, K.-A., & Ryan, T. (2020). Exploring the impacts of school belonging on youth wellbeing and mental health among Turkish adolescents. Child Indicators Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-020-09721-z
Arslan, G., Y?ld?r?m, M., Tanhan, A., Bulu?, M., & Allen, K. A. (2020). Coronavirus stress, optimism-pessimism, psychological inflexibility, and psychological health: Psychometric properties of the Coronavirus Stress Measure. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00337-6
Backhaus, I., Lipson, S. K., Fisher, L. B., Kawachi, I., & Pedrelli, P. (2019). Sexual assault, sense of belonging, depression and suicidality among LGBQ and heterosexual college students. Journal of American College Health. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2019.1679155
Baskin, T. W., Wampold, B. E., Quintana, S. M., & Enright, R. D. (2010). Belongingness as a protective factor against loneliness and potential depression in a multicultural middle school. The Counseling Psychologist, 38(5), 626-651. https://doi.org/10.1v 177/0 011000009358459
Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497–529.
Cacioppo, J. T., Hughes, M. E., Waite, L. J., Hawkley, L. C., & Thisted, R. A. (2006). Loneliness as a specific risk factor for depressive symptoms: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Psychology and Aging, 21(1), 140-151. https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7918.104.22.168
Çivitci, A. (2014). Positive affection and self-esteem in college students: The moderating role of college satisfaction and college belonging. Yuksekogretim Dergisi, 4(2), 102–109. https://doi.org/10.2399/yod.14.012
Civitci, A. (2015). Perceived stress and life satisfaction in college students: Belonging and extracurricular participation as moderators. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 205, 271-281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.0 9.077
Cruz, R. A., Peterson, A. P., Fagan, C., Black, W., & Cooper, L. (2020). Evaluation of the Brief Adjustment Scale–6 (BASE-6): A measure of general psychological adjustment for measurement-based care. Psychological Services, 17(3), 332–342. https://doi.org/10.1037/ser0000 366
D’Agostino, R. B., Belanger, A., & D’Agostino, R. B. (1990). A suggestion for using powerful and informative tests of normality. The American Statistician, 44(4), 316-321. https://doi.org/10.23 07/2684359
Davis, J. P., Merrin, G. J., Ingram, K. M., Espelage, D. L., Valido, A., & El Sheikh, A. J. (2019). Examining pathways between bully victimization, depression, & school belonging among early adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 28(9), 2365-2378. https://doi.org/10.1007/s1082 6-019- 01340-9
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227–268. https://doi.org/10.1207/S1532 7965PLI1104_01
Do?an, T., Çötok, N. A., & Tekin, E. G. (2011). Reliability and validity of the Turkish Version of the UCLA Loneliness Scale (ULS-8) among university students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 2058–2062. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.04.053
Doman, L. C. H., & Le Roux, A. (2012). The relationship between loneliness and psychological well-being among third-year students: A cross-cultural investigation. International Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 5(3), 153-168. https://doi.org/1 0.1080/17542863.2011.579389
Eisenberg, M. E., Ackard, D. M., & Resnick, M. D. (2007). Protective factors and suicide risk in adolescents with a history of sexual abuse. The Journal of Pediatrics, 151(5), 482-487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j .jpeds.2007.04.033
Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. Sage publications.
Goodenow, C. (1993). The psychological sense of school membership among adolescents: Scale development and educational correlates. Psychology in the Schools, 30(1), 79–90.
Goodenow, C., & Grady, K. E. (1993). The relationship of school belonging and friends’ values to academic motivation among urban adolescent students. The Journal of Experimental Education, 62(1), 60–71. https://doi.org/10.10 80/00220973.1993.9943831
Habibi, M., Hosseini, F., Darharaj, M., Moghadamzadeh, A., Radfar, F., & Ghaffari, Y. (2018). Attachment style, perceived loneliness, and psychological well-being in smoking and non-smoking university students. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 152(4), 226-236. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223 980.2 018.1446894
Hayes, A. F. (2018). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford Press.
Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. R. (2008). Structural equation modelling: guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 53–60.
Houghton, S., Hattie, J., Carroll, A., Wood, L., & Baffour, B. (2016). It hurts to be lonely! Loneliness and positive mental wellbeing in Australian rural and urban adolescents. Journal of Psychologists and Counsellors in Schools, 26(1), 52-67. https://doi.org/10.1017/jgc.2016.1
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118
Jackson, C. E., & DiPlacido, J. (2020). Vitality as a mediator between diet quality and subjective wellbeing among college students. Journal of Happiness Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s1090 2-019-00150-6
Kawabata, M., Yamazaki, F., Guo, D. W., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. D. (2017). Advancement of the Subjective Vitality Scale: examination of alternative measurement models for Japanese and Singaporeans, 27(12), 1793-1800. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. https://doi.org/10.1 111/sms.12760
Kim, E. Y., Cho, I., & Kim, E. J. (2017). Structural equation model of smartphone addiction based on adult attachment theory: Mediating effects of loneliness and depression. Asian Nursing Research, 11(2), 92-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. anr.2017.05.0 02
Luchetti, M., Lee, J. H., Aschwanden, D., Sesker, A., Strickhouser, J. E., Terracciano, A., & Sutin, A. R. (2020). The trajectory of loneliness in response to COVID-19. American Psychologist, 75(7), 897-908. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/amp0000690
Malone, G. P., Pillow, D. R., & Osman, A. (2012). The general belongingness scale (GBS): Assessing achieved belongingness. Personality and Individual Differences, 52(3), 311–316. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.10.027
Mellor, D., Stokes, M., Firth, L., Hayashi, Y., & Cummins, R. (2008). Need for belonging, relationship satisfaction, loneliness, and life satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(3), 213–218.
Moeller, R. W., & Seehuus, M. (2019). Loneliness as a mediator for college students’ social skills and experiences of depression and anxiety. Journal of Adolescence, 73, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1 016/j.adolescence.2019.03.006
Mounts, N. S. (2004). Contributions of parenting and campus climate to freshmen adjustment in a multiethnic sample. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19(4), 468–491. https://doi.org/10.11 77/0743558403258862
Niemiec, C. P., Ryan, R. M., Patrick, H., Deci, E. L., & Williams, G. C. (2010). The energization of health-behavior change: Examining the associations among autonomous self-regulation, subjective vitality, depressive symptoms, and tobacco abstinence. Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(2), 122-138. https://doi.org/10.10 80/1743976090 3569162
Nuttman-Shwartz, O. (2019). The moderating role of resilience resources and sense of belonging to the school among children and adolescents in continuous traumatic stress situations. Journal of Early Adolescence, 39(9), 1261-1285. https:// doi.org/10.1177/0272431618812719
Olco?, K., Kim, Y., & Gulbas, L. E. (2017). Sense of belonging and youth suicidal behaviors: What do communities and schools have to do with it? Social Work in Public Health, 32(7), 432-442. https://doi.org/10.1080/19371918.2017.1344602
Özdemir, U., & Tuncay, T. (2008). Correlates of loneliness among university students. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 2(1), 29. https://doi.org/10.1186/1753-2000-2-29
Peltzer, K., & Pengpid, S. (2017). Loneliness: Its correlates and associations with health risk behaviours among university students in 25 countries. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 27(3), 247–255. https://doi.org/10.1080/14330237.201 7.1321851
Pittman, L. D., & Richmond, A. (2007). Academic and psychological functioning in late adolescence: The importance of school belonging. The Journal of Experimental Education, 75(4), 270–290. https://doi.org/10.3200/JEXE.75.4.270-292
Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879–891. https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.40.3.879
Preacher, K. J., Rucker, D. D., & Hayes, A. F. (2007). Addressing moderated mediation hypotheses: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42(1), 185-227. https://doi.org/10.1080/002 73170701341316
Richardson, T., Elliott, P., & Roberts, R. (2017). Relationship between loneliness and mental health in students. Journal of Public Mental Health, 16(2), 48–54. https://doi.org/10.1108/ JPMH-03-2016-0013
Rostosky, S. S., Owens, G. P., Zimmerman, R. S., & Riggle, E. D. B. (2003). Associations among sexual attraction status, school belonging, and alcohol and marijuana use in rural high school students. Journal of Adolescence, 26(6), 741–751. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2003.09.002
Rouse, P. C., Veldhuijzen Van Zanten, J. J. J. C. S., Ntoumanis, N., Metsios, G. S., Yu, C., Kitas, G. D., & Duda, J. L. (2015). Measuring the positive psychological well-being of people with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional validation of the Subjective Vitality Scale. Arthritis Research & Therapy, 17(1), 312. https://doi.org/10.1 186/s13075-015-0827-7
Russell, D., Cutrona, C. E., Rose, J., & Yurko, K. (1984). Social and emotional loneliness: an examination of Weiss’s typology of loneliness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(6), 1313–1321.
Russell, D., Peplau, L. A., & Cutrona, C. E. (1980). The revised UCLA Loneliness Scale: Concurrent and discriminant validity evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(3), 472–480. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1242
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2008). From ego depletion to vitality: theory and findings concerning the facilitation of energy available to the self. Social and Personality Psychology Compass. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-004.2008.00098.x
Ryan, R. M., & Frederick, C. (1997). On energy, personality, and health: subjective vitality as a dynamic reflection of well-being. Journal of Personality, 65(3), 529–565. https://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1997.tb00326.x
Salama-Younes, M. (2011). Positive mental health, subjective vitality and satisfaction with life for french physical education students. World Journal of Sport Sciences, 4(2), 90–97.
Salama-Younes, M., & Hashim, M. (2018). Passion, vitality and life satisfaction for physically active old adults. Journal of Positive Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2017.1291848
Sargent, J., Williams, R. A., Hagerty, B., Lynch-Sauer, J., & Hoyle, K. (2002). Sense of belonging as a buffer against depressive symptoms. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association. https://doi.org/10.1067/mpn.2002.127290
Sar?cam, H. (2015). Mediating role of self-efficacy on the relationship between subjective vitality and school burnout in turkish adolescents. Educational Research Associaion: The International Journal of Educational Researcers, 6(1), 1–12.
Satici, S. A. (2019). Facebook addiction and subjective well-being: A study of the mediating role of shyness and loneliness. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 17(1), 41-55. https://doi.org/10.1 007/s11469-017-9862-8
Satici, S. A. (2020). Hope and loneliness mediate the association between stress and subjective vitality. Journal of College Student Development. https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2020.0019
Shochet, I. M., Smith, C. L., Furlong, M. J., & Homel, R. (2011). A prospective study investigating the impact of school belonging factors on negative affect in adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40(4), 586–595. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2011.581616
Skues, J., Williams, B., Oldmeadow, J., & Wise, L. (2016). The effects of boredom, loneliness, and distress tolerance on problem internet use among university students. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 14(2), 167–180. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-015-9568-8
Stevens, J. P. (2009). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences. Routledge.
Tanhan, A. (2018). Beginning counsellors’ supervision in counseling and challenges and supports they experience: Based on developmental models. Adiyaman Üniversitesi E?itim Bilimleri Dergisi, 8(1), 49-71. https://doi.org/10.17984/adyuebd.336222
Tanhan, A. (2019). Acceptance and commitment therapy with ecological systems theory: Addressing Muslim mental health issues and wellbeing. Journal of Positive Psychology and Wellbeing, 3(2), 197-219. https://doi.org/10.47 602/jpsp.v3i2.172
Tanhan, A. (2020). COVID-19 sürecinde online seslifoto (OSF) yöntemiyle biyopsikososyal manevi ve ekonomik meseleleri ve genel iyi olu? düzeyini ele almak: OSF’nin Türkçeye uyarlanmas?. [Utilizing online photovoice (OPV) methodology to address biopsychosocial spiritual economic issues and wellbeing during COVID-19: Adapting OPV to Turkish.] Turkish Studies, 15(4), 1029-1086. https://dx.doi.org/10.782 7/TurkishStudies.44451
Tay, L., & Jebb, A. (2017). Scale development. In S. Rogelberg (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of industrial and organizational psychology. Sage publications.
Thompson, K., Wood, D., & Davis MacNevin, P. (2019). Sex differences in the impact of secondhand harm from alcohol on student mental health and university sense of belonging. Addictive Behaviors, 89, 57-64. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.a ddbeh.2018.09.012
Torgerson, C. N., Love, H. A., & Vennum, A. (2018). The buffering effect of belonging on the negative association of childhood trauma with adult mental health and risky alcohol use. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 88, 44–50. https://doi.org /10.1016/j.jsat.2018.02.005
U?ur, E., Kaya, Ç., & Özçelik, B. (2019). Subjective vitality mediates the relationship between respect toward partner and subjective happiness on teachers. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 7(1), 126–132. https://doi.org/10.13 189/ujer.2019.070117
Uysal, R., Saricam, H., & Akin, A. (2014). Öznel Zindelik Ölçe?i Türkçe formunun psikometrik özellikleri. Mu?la S?tk? Koçman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 33, 136–146.
Uysal, Recep, Satici, S. A., & Akin, A. (2013). Mediating effect of facebook® addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness. Psychological Reports, 113(3), 948–953. https://doi.org/10.2466/02. 09.18 .PR0.113x32z3
Weiss, R. S. (1973). Loneliness: The experience of emotional and social isolation. In Loneliness: The experience of emotional and social isolation. The MIT Press.
Won, S., Hensley, L. C., & Wolters, C. A. (2019). Brief research report: sense of belonging and academic help-seeking as self-regulated learning. The Journal of Experimental Education. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220973.2019.1703095
World Health Organization. (2020). WHO coronavirus disease (COVID-19) dashboard. https://covid19. who.int/
Worthington, R. L., & Whittaker, T. A. (2006). Scale development research. The Counseling Psychologist, 34(6), 806–838. https://doi.org/10.1 177/ 0011000006288127
Yavuzer, Y., Albayrak, G., & K?l?çarslan, S. (2019). Relationships amongst aggression, self-theory, loneliness, and depression in emerging adults. Psychological Reports. https://doi.org/10.1177 /0033294118784866
Y?ld?r?m, M., & Solmaz, F. (2020a). COVID-19 burnout, COVID-19 stress and resilience: Initial psychometric properties of COVID-19 Burnout Scale. Death Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/07 4811 87.2020.1818885
Y?ld?r?m, M. & Solmaz, F. (2020b). Testing a Turkish adaption of the Brief Psychological Adjustment Scale and assessing the relation to mental health. Psikoloji Çal??malar?, 40(2), 1-23.
Yildirim, M., & Arslan, G. (2020). Exploring the associations between resilience, dispositional hope, subjective well-being, and psychological health among adults during early stage of COVID-19. PsyArXiv, 1–27. https://doi.org/ 10.31234/osf.io/vpu5q
Y?ld?r?m, M., & Güler, A. (2020a). Positivity mechanism explains how COVID-19 perceived risk increases death distress and reduces happiness. Personality and Individual Differences, 110347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. paid.2020.110347
Y?ld?r?m, M., & Güler, A. (2020b). COVID-19 severity, self-efficacy, knowledge, preventive behaviors, and mental health in Turkey. Death Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2020. 1793434
Yildirim, M., Ozaslan, A., & Arslan, G. (2020). Perceived risk and mental health problems among healthcare professionals during COVID-19 pandemic: Exploring the mediating effects of resilience and coronavirus fear. PsyArXiv, 1–25. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/ 84xju
Zhang, H., Liu, M., & Long, H. (2020). Child maltreatment and suicide ideation in rural china: the roles of self-compassion and school belonging. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10560-020-00679-z
- Abstract Viewed: 2914 times
- PDF Downloaded: 1695 times