Student subjective wellbeing, school functioning, and psychological adjustment in high school adolescents: A latent variable analysis
Journal of Positive School Psychology ,
Vol. 4 No. 2 (2020),
4 October 2020
AbstractWell-being is a multi-faceted construct that encompasses all aspects of healthy and successful human functioning across multiple domains. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the predictive power of student subjective wellbeing on several specific adolescent school and psychological adjustment indicators: school achievement, academic satisfaction, prosocial behavior, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants included 223 adolescents, comprising of 54.9% girls, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years (M= 15.67, SD= 1.21). Findings from the LVPA indicated that student subjective wellbeing was significantly associated with youth school functioning and adjustment outcomes, ranging from small-to-large effect size (R2 range = .05 to .42). Student subjective wellbeing had the strongest predictive effect on prosocial behavior, followed by academic satisfaction, psychological health problems, and school achievement. With regard to the first-order models, school connectedness and joy of learning significantly predicted student academic satisfaction, prosocial behavior, and psychological adjustment problems. However, the predictive effect of these variables on student school achievement was non–significant. Educational purpose and academic efficacy were significant predictors of all adolescent outcomes. Taken together, these results suggest that student subjective wellbeing is an essential resource for improving youth academic functioning and psychological health.
- Subjective wellbeing, school functioning, psychosocial adjustment, positive psychology, adolescence
How to Cite
Alivernini, F., & Lucidi, F. (2011). Relationship between social context, self-efficacy, motivation, academic achievement, and intention to drop out of high school: A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Research. 104(4), 241-252. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671003728062
Antaramian, S. P., Scott Huebner, E., Hills, K. J., & Valois, R. F. (2010). A dual-factor model of mental health: Toward a more comprehensive understanding of youth functioning. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 80(4), 462-472. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.2010.01049.x
Arslan, G. (2016). Relationship between sense of rejection, academic achievement, academic efficacy, and educational purpose in high school students. Egitim ve Bilim, 41(183), 293–304. https://doi.org/10.15390/EB.2016.5562
Arslan, G. (2018). Understanding the associations between positive psychological functioning at work and cognitive wellbeing in teachers. Journal of Positive School Psychology. 2(2), 113-127. https://www.journalppw.com/index.php/JPPW/article/view/22
Arslan, G. (2019a). Exploring the effects of positive psychological strengths on psychological adjustment in adolescents. Child Indicators Research, 12(4), 1449–1464. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-018-9589-5
Arslan, G. (2019b). Positive psychological traits, school functioning, and psychological adjustment in elementary schoolchildren. Journal of Psychologists and Counsellors in Schools, 29(2), 139–150. https://doi.org/10.1017/jgc.2018.24
Arslan, G. (2019c). Development and validation of the Youth Externalizing Behavior Screener: A brief and effective measure of behavioral problems. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 7(sup1), 64–74. https://doi.org/10.1080/21683603.2018.1466747
Arslan, G. (2020). Measuring emotional problems in Turkish adolescents: Development and initial validation of the Youth Internalizing Behavior Screener. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/21683603.2019.1700860
Arslan, G., & Duru, E. (2017). Initial development and validation of the School Belongingness Scale. Child Indicators Research, 10(4), 1043–1058. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-016-9414-y
Arslan, G., & Renshaw, T. L. (2018). Student subjective wellbeing as a predictor of adolescent problem behaviors: a comparison of first-order and second-order factor effects. Child Indicators Research, 11(2), 507–521. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-017-9444-0
Balkis, M. (2013). Academic procrastination, academic life satisfaction and academic achievement: The mediation role of rational beliefs about studying. Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies. 13(1), 57-74
Bird, J. M., & Markle, R. S. (2012). Subjective well-being in school environments: Promoting positive youth development through evidence-based assessment and intervention. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 82(1), 61-66. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.2011.01127.x
Bücker, S., Nuraydin, S., Simonsmeier, B. A., Schneider, M., & Luhmann, M. (2018). Subjective well-being and academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Journal of Research in Personality. 74, 83-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2018.02.007
Caprara, G. V., & Steca, P. (2005). Self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of prosocial behavior conducive to life satisfaction across ages. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. 24(2), 191-217. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.220.127.116.11271
Caprara, G. V., Vecchione, M., Alessandri, G., Gerbino, M., & Barbaranelli, C. (2011). The contribution of personality traits and self-efficacy beliefs to academic achievement: A longitudinal study. British Journal of Educational Psychology. 81(1), 78-96. https://doi.org/10.1348/2044-8279.002004
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioralsciences (2nd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum.
D’Agostino, R. B., Belanger, A., & D’Agostino, R. B. (1990). A suggestion for using powerful and informative tests of normality. The American Statistician, 44(4), 316. https://doi.org/10.2307/2684359
Dang, M. T. (2014). Social connectedness and self-esteem: Predictors of resilience in mental health among maltreated homeless youth. Issues in Mental Health Nursing. 35(3), 212-219 https://doi.org/10.3109/01612840.2013.860647
Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95(3), 542–575. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.95.3.542
Ehrhardt-Madapathi, N., Pretsch, J., & Schmitt, M. (2018). Effects of injustice in primary schools on students’ behavior and joy of learning. Social Psychology of Education. 21(2), 337-369. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-017-9416-8
Falanga, R., Caroli, M. E. De, & Sagone, E. (2014). Humor styles, self-efficacy and prosocial tendencies in middle adolescents. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 127, 214-218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.243
Furlong, M. J., You, S., Renshaw, T. L., O’Malley, M. D., & Rebelez, J. (2013). Preliminary development of the Positive Experiences at School Scale for elementary school children. Child Indicators Research, 6(4), 753–775. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-013-9193-7
Furlong, M. J., You, S., Renshaw, T. L., Smith, D. C., & O’Malley, M. D. (2014). Preliminary development and validation of the social and emotional health survey for secondary school students. Social Indicators Research, 117(3), 1011–1032.
Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. R. (2008). Structural equation modelling: guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 53–60.
Huebner, E. S., Funk, B. A., & Gilman, R. (2000). Cross-sectional and longitudinal psychosocial correlates of adolescent life satisfaction reports. Canadian Journal of School Psychology. 16(1), 53-64. https://doi.org/10.1177/082957350001600104
Jones, C. N., You, S., & Furlong, M. J. (2013). A Preliminary examination of covitality as integrated well-being in college students. Social Indicators Research, 111(2), 511–526. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-012-0017-9
Kansky, J., & Diener, E. (2017). Benefits of well-being: Health, social relationships, work, and resilience. Journal of Positive Psychology and Wellbeing, 1(2), 129-169.
Kaplan, Y. (2017). School-specific subjective wellbeing and emotional problems among high school adolescents. Journal of Positive Psychology & Wellbeing, 1(1), 1–9.
Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford
Lewis, A. D., Huebner, S. E., Reschly, A. L., & Valois, R. F. (2009). The incremental validity of positive emotions in predicting school functioning. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment. 27(5), 397-408. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734282908330571
López-Romero, L., & Romero, E. (2010). Goals during adolescence and their relationship with antisocial behavior. Spanish Journal of Psychology. 13(1), 166-177. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1138741600003759
Loukas, A., Ripperger-Suhler, K. G., & Horton, K. D. (2009). Examining temporal associations between school connectedness and early adolescent adjustment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 38(6), 804-812. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-008-9312-9
McNeely, C. A., Nonnemaker, J. M., & Blum, R. W. (2002). Promoting school connectedness: Evidence from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health. Journal of School Health. 72(4), 138-146. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2002.tb06533.x
Moore, S., & Diener, E. (2019). Types of subjective well-being and their associations with relationship outcomes. Journal of Positive Psychology & Wellbeing, 3(2), 112–118.
Murnaghan, D., Morrison, W., Laurence, C., & Bell, B. (2014). Investigating mental fitness and school connectedness in Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick, Canada. Journal of School Health. 84(7), 444-450. https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12169
Nasir, N. S., Jones, A., & McLaughlin, M. (2011). School connectedness for students in low-income urban high schools. Teachers College Record. 113(8), 1755-1793.
Odaci, H., & Çikrikçi, Ö. (2014). Problematic internet use in terms of gender, attachment styles and subjective well-being in university students. Computers in Human Behavior. 32, 61-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.11.019
Oldfield, J., Humphrey, N., & Hebron, J. (2016). The role of parental and peer attachment relationships and school connectedness in predicting adolescent mental health outcomes. Child and Adolescent Mental Health. 21(1), 21-29. https://doi.org/10.1111/camh.12108
Osterman, K. F. (2000). Students’ need for belonging in the school community. Review of Educational Research, 70(3), 323–367.
Pekrun, R., Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A. (2009). Achievement goals and achievement emotions: testing a model of their joint relations with academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology. 101(1), 115- 135. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013383
Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Perry, R. P., Kramer, K., Hochstadt, M., & Molfenter, S. (2004). Beyond test anxiety: Development and validation of the Test Emotions Questionnaire (TEQ). Anxiety, Stress and Coping. 17(3), 287-316. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615800412331303847
Pethtel, O. L., Moist, M., & Baker, S. (2018). Time perspective and psychological well-being in younger and older adults. Journal of Positive School Psychology, 2(1), 45-63. http://journalppw.com/index.php/JPPW/article/view/51
Renshaw, T. L., & Arslan, G. (2016). Psychometric properties of the Student Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire with turkish adolescents: A generalizability study. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 31(2), 139–151. https://doi.org/10.1177/0829573516634644
Renshaw, T. L., & Chenier, J. S. (2018). Further validation of the Student Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire: Comparing first-order and second-order factor effects on actual school outcomes. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 36(4), 392–397. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734282916678494
Renshaw, T. L., & Chenier, J. S. (2019). Screening for student subjective well-being: An analog evaluation of broad and targeted models. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 37(6), 803–809. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734282918795797
Renshaw, T. L., Furlong, M. J., Dowdy, E., Rebelez, J., Smith, D. C., O’Malley, M. D., Lee, S.-Y., & Strøm, I. F. (2014). Covitality: A synergistic conception of adolescents’ mental health. In Handbook of positive psychology in schools, 2nd ed. (pp. 12–32). Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
Renshaw, T. L., Long, A. C. J., & Cook, C. R. (2015). Assessing adolescents’ positive psychological functioning at school: Development and validation of the Student Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire. School Psychology Quarterly, 30(4), 534–552. https://doi.org/10.1037/spq0000088
Satici, S. A. (2016). Psychological vulnerability, resilience, and subjective well-being: The mediating role of hope. Personality and Individual Differences. 102, 68-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.06.057
Schmitt, N., Oswald, F. L., Friede, A., Imus, A., & Merritt, S. (2008). Perceived fit with an academic environment: Attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 72(3), 317-335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2007.10.007
Seligman, M. E. P. (2011). Flourish: A Visionary New Understanding of Happiness and Well-being. Free Press.
Shaunessy, E., Suldo, S. M., Hardesty, R. B., & Shaffer, E. J. (2006). School functioning and psychological well-being of international baccalaureate and general education students a preliminary examination. Journal of Advanced Academics. 17(2), 76-89. https://doi.org/10.4219/jsge-2006-683
Shoshani, A., & Slone, M. (2013). Middle school transition from the strengths perspective: Young adolescents’ character strengths, subjective well-being, and school adjustment. Journal of Happiness Studies. 14(4), 1163-1181. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-012-9374-y
Strein, W., & Kuhn-McKearin, M. (2013). School function assessment. In V. F.R. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of autism spectrum disorders (pp. 2658–2662). Springer New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1698-3_168
Suldo, S. M., & Huebner, E. S. (2006). Is extremely high life satisfaction during adolescence advantageous? Social Indicators Research. 78(2), 179-203. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-005-8208-2
Suldo, S. M., & Shaffer, E. J. (2008). Looking beyond psychopathology: The dual-factor model of mental health in youth. School Psychology Review. 37(1), 52-68.
Suldo, S., Thalji, A., & Ferron, J. (2011). Longitudinal academic outcomes predicted by early adolescents’ subjective well-being, psychopathology, and mental health status yielded from a dual factor model. Journal of Positive Psychology. 6(1), 17-30. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2010.536774
Telef, B. B., & Furlong, M. J. (2017). Adaptation and validation of the Social and Emotional Health Survey–Secondary into Turkish culture. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 5(4), 255–265. https://doi.org/10.1080/21683603.2016.1234988
Thijs, J., & Verkuyten, M. (2008). Peer Victimization and academic achievement in a multiethnic sample: The role of perceived academic self-efficacy. Journal of Educational Psychology. 100(4), 754-764. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013155
Tian, L., Chen, H., & Huebner, E. S. (2014). The longitudinal relationships between basic psychological needs satisfaction at school and school-related subjective well-being in adolescents. Social Indicators Research. 119(1), 353-372. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-013-0495-4
Wang, M. Te. (2009). School climate support for behavioral and psychological adjustment: Testing the mediating effect of social competence. School Psychology Quarterly. 24(4), 240-251. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017999
Wilkinson-Lee, A. M., Zhang, Q., Nuno, V. L., & Wilhelm, M. S. (2011). Adolescent emotional distress: The role of family obligations and school connectedness. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(2), 221–230. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-009-9494-9
Yalcin, I., & Malkoc, A. (2015). The relationship between meaning in life and subjective well-being: Forgiveness and hope as mediators. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16(4), 915–929. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-014-9540-5
You, S., Furlong, M. J., Dowdy, E., Renshaw, T. L., Smith, D. C., & O’Malley, M. D. (2014). Further Validation of the Social and Emotional Health Survey for High School Students. Applied Research in Quality of Life. 9(4), 997-1015. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11482-013-9282-2
Zajacova, A., Lynch, S. M., & Espenshade, T. J. (2005). Self-efficacy, stress, and academic success in college. In Research in Higher Education. 46(6), 677-706. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-004-4139-z
Zhang, D. C., & Renshaw, T. L. (2020). Personality and College Student Subjective Wellbeing: A Domain-Specific Approach. Journal of Happiness Studies. 21(3), 997- 1014. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-019-00116-8
Zullig, K. J., Huebner, E. S., & Patton, J. M. (2011). Relationships among school climate domains and school satisfaction. Psychology in the Schools. 48(2), 133-145. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20532
- Abstract Viewed: 562 times
- Download PDF Downloaded: 450 times