Development and Validation of the Japanese version of the Savoring Beliefs Inventory (SBI-J)

Main Article Content

Atsushi Kawakubo
Fred B Bryant
Erika Miyakawa
Takashi Oguchi


Savoring, savoring beliefs, japanese adults, positive psychology, well-being


Savoring is defined as people’s capacity to attend to positive experiences and to regulate positive feelings in response to positive events. The purpose of this study was to develop a Japanese adaptation of the Savoring Beliefs Inventory (SBI-J). The SBI is a self-report measure designed to assess individuals’ beliefs about their ability to savor positive experience within three temporal orientations involving future-focused anticipation of upcoming positive events, present-focused savoring of ongoing positive moments, and past-focused reminiscence about positive memories. After back-translating the SBI, we used an Internet survey to administer the instrument, along with a set of validational criterion measures, to a sample of 520 Japanese adults. Supporting hypotheses and replicating results with Western samples, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that responses to the SBI-J were best conceptualized in terms of five factors reflecting the three, intercorrelated temporal orientations (anticipating, savoring the moment, and reminiscing), as well as two “method” factors involving positive and negative item-valence. Strong, significant correlations among the three temporal SBI-J subscales also support the use of a total score that provides an overall summary of global savoring ability. Each of the three temporal subscales and total score showed acceptable internal consistency reliability and strong one-month test-retest reliability. Correlations of the SBI-J subscales and total score with criterion measures, and gender differences in mean SBI-J scores, support the convergent and discriminant validity of the instrument. These results indicate that the SBI-J is a valid and reliable tool for assessing savoring ability among Japanese adults.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 916 | Download PDF Downloads 581


Aghaie, E., Roshan, R., Mohamadkhani, P., Shaeeri, M., & Gholami-Fesharaki, M. (2016). Factor Analysis and Psychometric Characteristics of the Persian Version of Savoring Belief Inventory (SBI). Avicenna Journal of Neuro Psycho Physiology, 4, 1-7.

Arbuckle, J. L. (2014). IBM SPSS AMOS 23 user’s guide. Armonk, NY: IBM.

Bachorowski, J. A., & Braaten, E. B. (1994). Emotional intensity: Measurement and theoretical implications. Personality and Individual Differences, 17, 191-199.

Beaumont, S. L. (2011). Identity styles and wisdom during emerging adulthood: Relationships with mindfulness and savoring. Identity, 11, 155-180.

Bentler, P. M., & Bonett, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 588-606.

Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., ... & Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 230-241.

Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136-162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Bryant, F. B. (1989). A four?factor model of perceived control: Avoiding, coping, obtaining, and savoring. Journal of Personality, 57, 773-797.

Bryant, F. B. (2003). Savoring Beliefs Inventory (SBI): A scale for measuring beliefs about savouring. Journal of Mental Health, 12, 175-196.

Bryant, F. B., & Veroff, J. (2007). Savoring: A new model of positive experience. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bryant, F. B., Chadwick, E. D., & Kluwe, K. (2011). Understanding the processes that regulate positive emotional experience: Unsolved problems and future directions for theory and research on savoring. International Journal of Wellbeing, 1, 107-126.

Bryant, F. B., Smart, C. M., & King, S. P. (2005). Using the past to enhance the present: Boosting happiness through positive reminiscence. Journal of Happiness Studies, 6, 227-260.

Chen, J., & Zhou, L. (2017). Savoring as a moderator between positive life events and hopelessness depression. Social Behavior and Personality, 45, 1337-1344.

Crowne, D. P., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 349-354.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper Perennial.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1999). If we are so rich, why aren’t we happy? American Psychologist, 54, 821-827.

Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71-75.

Eid, M., & Diener, E. (2001). Norms for experiencing emotions in different cultures: Inter- and intranational differences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 869-885.

Eisner, L. R., Johnson, S. L., & Carver, C. S. (2009). Positive affect regulation in anxiety disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 645-649.

Frijda, N. H. (2001). The nature of pleasure. In J. A. Bargh & D. K. Apsley (Eds.), Unraveling the complexities of social life: A festschrift in honor of Robert B. Zajonc (pp. 71-94). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Froh, J. J., & Parks, A. C. (Eds.). (2013). Activities for teaching positive psychology: A guide for instructors. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Gentzler, A. L., Morey, J. N., Palmer, C. A., & Yi, C. Y. (2013). Young adolescents’ responses to positive events: Associations with positive affect and adjustment. Journal of Early Adolescence, 33, 663-683.

Gentzler, A. L., Palmer, C. A., & Ramsey, M. A. (2016). Savoring with intent: Investigating types of and motives for responses to positive events. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17, 937-958.

Golay, P., Thonon, B., Nguyen, A., Fankhauser, C., & Favrod, J. (2018). Confirmatory factor analysis of the French version of the Savoring Beliefs Inventory. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1-7.

Hashimoto, K., & Koyasu, M. (2011). The relationships among optimism, positive orientation, and subjective well-being [in Japanese]. The Japanese Journal of Personality, 19, 233-244.

Hou, W. K., Lau, K. M., Ng, S. M., Lee, T. M. C., Cheung, H. Y. S., Shum, T. C. Y., & Cheng, A. C. K. (2016). Psychological detachment and savoring in adaptation to cancer caregiving. Psycho-oncology, 25, 839-847.

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1998). Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: Sensitivity to underparameterized model misspecification. Psychological Methods, 3, 424-453.

Joshanloo, M., & Weijers, D. (2014). Aversion to happiness across cultures: A review of where and why people are averse to happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15, 717-735.

Joshanloo, M., Lepshokova, Z. K., Panyusheva, T., Natalia, A., Poon, W.-C., Yeung, V. W., & Jian, D.-Y. (2014). Cross-cultural validation of Fear of Happiness Scale across 14 national groups. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45, 246-264.

Kabat?Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness?based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 144-156.

Kanbara, M., Higuchi, K., & Shimizu, N. (1982). New locus of control scale: Its reliability and validity [In Japanese]. The Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, 30, 302-307.

Kiken, L. G., Lundberg, K. B., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2017). Being present and enjoying it: Dispositional mindfulness and savoring the moment are distinct, interactive predictors of positive emotions and psychological health. Mindfulness, 8, 1280-1290.

Kim, S., & Bryant, F. B. (2017). The influence of gender and cultural values on savoring in Korean undergraduates. International Journal of Wellbeing, 7, 43-63.

Kuppens, P., Realo, A., & Diener, E. (2008). The role of positive and negative emotions in life satisfaction judgment across nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 66-75.

Kurtz, J. L. (2015). Seeing through new eyes: An experimental investigation of the benefits of photography. Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 11, 354-358.

Larsen, R. J., & Diener, E. (1987). Affect intensity as an individual difference characteristic: A review. Journal of Research in Personality, 21, 1-39.

Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.

Lin, C. W., Chen, S. L., & Wang, R. Y. (2011). Savouring and perceived job performance in positive psychology: Moderating role of positive affectivity. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 14, 165-175.

Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. S. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46, 137-155.

McMakin, D. L., Siegle, G. J., & Shirk, S. R. (2011). Positive Affect Stimulation and Sustainment (PASS) module for depressed mood: A preliminary investigation of treatment related effects. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35, 217-226.

Meehan, M. P., Durlak, J. A., & Bryant, F. B. (1993). The relationship of social support to perceived control and subjective mental health in adolescents. Journal of Community Psychology, 21, 49-55.

Metin-Orta, I. (2018). The Savoring Beliefs Inventory: An adaptation study of the SBI in the Turkish cultural contest. TPM: Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 25, 139-151.

Meyer, P. S., Johnson, D. P., Parks, A., Iwanski, C., & Penn, D. L. (2012) Positive living: A pilot study of group positive psychotherapy for people with schizophrenia. Journal of Positive Psychology, 7, 239-248.

Miura, A., & Kobayashi T. (2015). Mechanical Japanese: Survey satisficing of online panels in Japan [In Japanese]. Japanese Journal of Social Psychology, 31, 1-12.

Miyamoto, Y., & Ma, X. (2011). Dampening or savoring positive emotions: A dialectical cultural script guides emotion regulation. Emotion, 11, 1346-1357.

Murakami, M., & Maeda, H. (2010). Development of a Job Stress Scale for new graduate nurses [In Japanese]. Journal of Japanese Society of Nursing Research, 33, 133-139.

Noguchi, M., Sato, W., & Yoshikawa, S. (2008). Development of the Emotional Intensity Scale: Japanese version [In Japanese]. Japanese Journal of Interpersonal and Social Psychology, 8, 103-109.

Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Parkes, K. R. (1990). Coping, negative affectivity, and the work environment: Additive and interactive predictors of mental health. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 399-409.

Paulhus, D. L. (1991). Measurement and control of response bias. In J. P. Robinson, P. R. Shaver, & L. S. Wrightsman (Eds.), Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes (pp.17–59). New York: Academic Press.

Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (1993). Review of the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Psychological Assessment, 5, 164-172.

Penley, J. A., Tomaka, J., & Wiebe, J. S. (2002). The association of coping to physical and psychological health outcomes: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 25, 551-603.

Quoidbach, J., Mikolajczak, M., & Gross, J. J. (2015). Positive interventions: An emotion regulation perspective. Psychological Bulletin, 141, 655-693.

Quoidbach, J., Wood, A., & Hansenne, M. (2009). Back to the future: The effect of daily practice of mental time travel into the future on happiness and anxiety. Journal of Positive Psychology, 4, 349-355.

Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 358-401.

Ritchie, T. D., & Bryant, F. B. (2012). Positive state mindfulness: A multidimensional model of mindfulness in relation to positive experience. International Journal of Well-Being, 2, 150-181.

Robles, R., Fresán, A., Zúñiga, T., Zaldivar, J., Santana, O., De la Cruz, D., ... & Páez, F. (2011). Evaluation of positive psychological constructs in Hispanic population: The case of Beliefs about Enjoying Life. Anales de Psicología/Annals of Psychology, 27, 58-64.

Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 80, 1-28.

Sakamoto, S. & Tanaka, E. (2002). A study of the Japanese version of revised Life Orientation Test [In Japanese]. Japanese Journal of Health Psychology, 15, 59-62.

Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A re-evaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1063-1078.

Seligman, M. E. P. (2011). Flourish: a visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. New York: Free Press.

Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55, 5-14.

Shima, S., Shikano, T., Kitamura, S., & Asai, M. (1985). A new self-rating scale for depression [In Japanese]. Clinical Psychiatry, 27, 717-723.

Shimai, S., Otake, K., Utsuki, N., Ikemi, A., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2004). Development of a Japanese version of the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS), and examination of its validity and reliability [In Japanese]. Japanese Journal of Public Health, 51, 845-853.

Smith, J. L., & Bryant, F. B. (2017). Savoring and well-being: Mapping the cognitive-emotional terrain of the happy mind. In M. D. Robinson & M. Eid (Eds.), The happy mind: Cognitive contributions to well-being (pp. 139-156). New York: Springer.

Smith, J. L., & Bryant, F. B. (2018). Enhancing positive perceptions of aging by savoring life lessons. Aging and Mental Health. Online First Article: 1-9.

Smith, J. L., & Hollinger-Smith, L. (2015). Savoring, resilience, and psychological well-being in older adults. Aging and Mental Health, 19, 192-200.

Smith, J. L., Harrison, P. R., Kurtz, J. L., & Bryant, F. B. (2014). Nurturing the capacity to savor: Interventions to enhance the enjoyment of positive experiences. In A. C. Parks & S. Schueller (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychological interventions (pp. 42-65). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Strauss, G. P. (2013). Translating basic emotion research into novel psychosocial interventions for anhedonia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 39, 737-739.

Syrus, P. (1856). The moral sayings of Publilius Syrus. (D. Lyman, Trans.). Cleveland, OH: [n.p.]. (Original work written 42 B.C.)

Tani, I. (2008). Development of Japanese version of Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR-J) [In Japanese]. Japanese Journal of Personality, 17, 18-28.

Tugade, M. M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2007). Regulation of positive emotions: Emotion regulation strategies that promote resilience. Journal of Happiness Studies, 8, 311-333.

Most read articles by the same author(s)