Self-Esteem and Optimism as Predictors of Resilience among Selected Filipino Active Duty Military Personnel in Military Camps

Abstract

Knowing the immense physical and psychological distress that military personnel undergo, it is almost impossible not talk about its adverse psychological consequences, particularly in the context of the mental health profession. Resilience, optimism, and self-esteem are just among the many factors that frequent the discussion about the effects of adverse situations. According to Fergus and Zimmerman’s Resilience Theory (2005), individuals possess innate traits such as resilience, that allow them to withstand distress, highlighting the predictive application of self-esteem and optimism for resilience. Mental health awareness has likewise risen in the Philippines, shedding more light on mental health issues that were previously considered to be too shallow and usually dismissed. As such, utilizing a predictive non-experimental research design, this present study aimed to determine whether self-esteem and optimism can predict resilience among 360 military personnel in activity duty. Military personnel from military camps who were selected using a non-probability technique completed a test battery consisting of three scales to measure the variables: Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R), and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Significant results revealed that a relationship exists among the research variables and that self-esteem and optimism predicts resilience among the present study’s selected active duty military personnel in military camps

Keywords

Self-esteem, optimism, resilience, military personnel, Filipinos

References

Agaibi, C.E., & Wilson, J.P. (2005). Trauma, PTSD, and Resilience: A review of the literature. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 6(3), 195-216.

Baldwin, A. L., Baldwin, C. P., Kasser, T., Zax, M., Sameroff, A., & Seifer, R. (1993). Contextual risk and resiliency during late adolescence [Special issue]. Development and Psychopathology, 5(4), 741–761.

Balgiu, B. (2017). Self-esteem, personality and resilience. Study of a student’s emerging adults group. Journal of Educational Sciences and Psychology, 7(1), 93-99.

Bartone, P. T., & Priest, R. F. (2001). Sex differences in hardiness and health among West Point cadets. Presented at the 13th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Society, Toronto.

Belli, G. (2008). Nonexperimental quantitative research. In Lapan, S.D., & Quartaroli, M.T., Research Essentials: An Introduction to Designs and Practices (pp. 59-77). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Block, J. H., & Block, J. (1980). The role of ego-control and ego-resiliency in the organization of behavior. In W. A. Collins (Ed.), Development of cognition, affect, and social relations. The Minnesota symposia on child psychology (Vol. 13, pp. 39–101). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Bonanno, G. A. (2004). Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? American Psychologist, 59(1), 20–28.

Brooks, R. B. (1994). Children at risk: Fostering resilience and hope. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 64(4), 545–553.

Campbell-Sills, L., Cohan, S.L. & Stein, M.B. (2006). Relationship of resilience to personality, coping, and psychiatric symptoms in young adults. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(4), 585–599.

Carver, C.S., Scheier, M.F., & Segerstrom, S.C. (2010). Optimism. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(7), 879-889.

Cesur, R., Sabia, J., & Tekin, E. (2013). The psychological costs of war: Military combat and mental health. Journal of Health Economics, 32(1), 51-65.

Connor, K. M., & Davidson, J. R. T. (2003). Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC). Depression and Anxiety, 18(2), 76–82.

Conversano, C., Rotondo, A., Lensi E., Della Vista, O., Arpone, F., & Reda, M.A. (2010). Optimism and Its Impact on Mental and Physical Well-Being. Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health, 6, 25-29. Doi: 10.2174/1745017901006010025

Davidson, J.R.T., & Connor, K.M. (2018). Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) Manual. Retrieved from http://cd-risc.com/

Davidson, J. R. T., Payne, V. M., Connor, K. M., Foa, E. B., Rothbaum, B. O., Hertzberg, M. A., et al. (2005). Trauma, resilience, and saliostasis: Effects of treatment in post-traumatic stress disorder. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 20(1), 43-48.

Dumont, M. & Provost, M.A., (1999). Resilience in adolescents: protective role of social support, coping strategies, self-esteem, and social activities on experience of stress and depression, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 28(3), 343–363.

Fergus, S., & Zimmerman, M.A. (2005). Adolescent Resilience: A Framework for Understanding Healthy Development in the Face of Risk. Annual Reviews Public Health, 26(1), 399-419.

Fonbuena, C. (2017) Marawi City liberated. Rappler News Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.rappler.com/nation/184878-marawi-war-over-philippines-maute

Fonbuena, C. (2018). The war in Marawi: 153 days and more. Rappler News Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.rappler.com/newsbreak/in-depth/186075-marawi-series- rappler-timeline

Franken, R. (1994). Human motivation (3rd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.

Friborg, O., Hjemdal, O., Rosenvinge, J. H., & Martinussen, M. (2003). A new rating scale for adult resilience: what are the central protective resources behind healthy adjustment? International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 12(2), 65–76.

Garmezy N, Masten AS, Tellegen A. (1984). The study of stress and competence in children: a building block for developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55(1), 97–111.

Gilligan, R. (2000). Adversity, resilience and young people: The protective value of positive school and spare time experiences. Children and Society, 14(1), 37–47.

Habib, U., Habib, O., & Ansari, S. (2016). Correlational study of Resilience, Emotional Competence and Self-Esteem. International Journal of Current Research, 8(11), 42371-42373.

Harter, S. (2012). The construction of the self: Developmental and sociocultural foundations (2nd ed.), New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Jindal-Snape, D., & Miller, D. J. (2008). A challenge of living? Understanding the psycho-social processes of the child during primary-secondary transition through resilience and self-esteem theories. Educational Psychology Review, 20(3), 217-236.

Kapikiran, S., & Kapikiran, N. (2016). Optimism and Psychological Resilience in relation to Depressive Symptoms in University Students: Examining the Mediating Role of Self-Esteem. Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri Educational Science: Theory & Practice, 16(6), 2087-2110.

Karatas, Z., & Cakar, F.S. (2011). Self-esteem and hopelessness, and resiliency: An exploratory study of adolescents in Turkey. International Education Studies, 4(4), 84-91.

Kennedy, C. (2013). Combat Stress versus Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. BrainLine WETA. Retrieved from https://www.brainline.org/article/combat-stress-versus-post-traumatic stress-disorder

Kidd, S., & Shahar, G. (2008). Resilience in homeless youth: The key role of self-esteem. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 78(2), 163-172.

Klohnen, E. C. (1996). Conceptual analysis and measurement of the construct of ego-resiliency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(5), 1067–1079.

Kumpfer, K. L. (1999). Factors and processes contributing to resilience: The resilience framework. In M. D. Glantz, & J. L. Johnson (Eds.), Resiliency and development: Positive life adaptations (pp. 179-224). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic.

Luthar, S. S. (2006). Resilience in development: A synthesis of research across five decades. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Risk, disorder, and adaptation (pp. 739–795). New York, NY: Wiley.

Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71(3), 543–562.

Luthar, S. S., & Zigler, E. (1991). Vulnerability and competence: A review of research on resilience in childhood. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61(1), 6–22.

Mäkikangas, A., Kinnunen, U., & Feldt, T. (2004). Self-esteem, dispositional optimism, and

: Evidence from cross-lagged data on employees. Journal of Research in Personality, 38(6), 556-575.

Mann, M., Hosman, C.M., Schaalma, H.P., & de Vries, N.K. (2004). Self-esteem in a broad-spectrum approach for mental health promotion. Health Education Research, 19(4), 357-372.

Martínez-Martí, M.L., & Ruch, W. (2016). Character strengths predict resilience over and above positive affect, self-efficacy, optimism, social support, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 12(2), 110-119.

Masten, A. S. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56(3), 227–238.

Masten, A.S., & Reed, M.J. (2002). Resilience in Development. In C.R. Synder, & S.J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of Positive Psychology (pp. 117-131). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Masten, A. S. (2006). Developmental psychopathology: Pathways to the future. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31(1), 46–53.

Masten, A. S. (2007). Competence, resilience, and development in adolescence: Clues for prevention science. In D. Romer & E. F. Walker (Eds.), Adolescent psychopathology and the developing brain: Integrating brain and prevention science (pp. 31–52). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Masten, A. S., Burt, K. B., & Coatsworth, J. D. (2006). Competence and psychopathology in Development: Risk disorder and psychopathology. In D. Ciccheti & D. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Risk, disorder and psychopathology (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 696–738). New York, NY: Wiley.

Masten, A. S., & Coatsworth, J. D. (1998). The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments. Lessons from research on successful children. American Psychologist, 53(2), 205-220.

Masten, A. S., Cutuli, J. J., Herbers, J. E., & Reed, J. M.-G. (2007). Resilience in development. In S. J. Lopez & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Masten, A., Hubbard, J., Gest, S., Tellegen, A., Garmezy, N., & Ramirez, M. (1999). Competence in the context of adversity: Pathways to resilience and maladaptation from childhood to late adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 11(1), 143–169.

Matthews, M.D. (2008). Toward a Positive Military Psychology. Military Psychology, 20(4), 289-298.

Miller, D. J., & Daniel, B. (2007). Competent to cope, worthy of happiness? How the duality of self-esteem can inform a resilience-based classroom environment. School Psychology International, 28(5), 605–622.

Miller, D. L., Manne, S. L., Taylor, K., Keates, J., & Dougherty, J. (1996). Psychological distress and well-being in advanced cancer: The effects of optimism and coping. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 3(2), 115–130.

Neuhof, F. (2017). Battle for Marawi proves struggle for Philippines' seasoned troops. The National. Retrieved from https://www.thenational.ae/world/asia/battle-for-m arawi-proves-struggle-for-philippines-seasoned-troops-1.629356

Oshio, A., Nakaya, M., Kaneko, H. & Nagamine, S. (2002). Development and validation of an Adolescent Resilience Scale. Japanese Journal of Counseling Science, 35(1), 57-65.

Panchal, S., Mukherjee, S., & Kumar, U. (2016). Optimism in Relation to Well-being, Resilience, and Perceived Stress. International Journal of Education and Psychological Research, 5(1), 2279.

Peterson, C., & Seligman, M.E. (1987). Explanatory style and illness. Journal of Personality, 55(2), 237-265.

Pflanz, MS., & Sonnek, S. (2002). Work Stress in the Military: Prevalence, Causes, and Relationship to Emotional Health. Military Medicine, 167(11), 877-882.

Philippine Army (2018). Army announces opening of 6,100 recruitment quota. Philippine Army Press Release. Retrieved July 12, 2019 https://www.army.mil.ph/home/index.php/press- releases-2/207-army-announces-opening-of-6-100-recruitment-quota

Rak, C. F., & Patterson, L. E. (1996). Promoting resilience in at-risk students. Journal of Counseling and Development, 74(4), 368-373.

Reivich, K., Gillham, J.E., Chaplin, T.M., & Seligman, M.E.P. (2013). From helplessness to optimism: The role of resilience in treating and preventing depression in youth. In S. Goldstein & R.B. Brooks (Eds.), Handbook of Resilience in Children (pp. 201-214). New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media.

Richardson, G. E. (2002). The metatheory of resilience and resiliency. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(3), 307–321.

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Doi: 10.1126/science.148.3671.804

Rutter, M. (1987). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57(3), 316–331.

Rutter, M. (2006). Implications of resilience concepts for scientific understanding. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1094, 1-2. Doi: 10.1196/annals.1376.002

Sabouripour, F., & Roslan, S.B. (2015). Resilience, optimism, and social support among international students. Asian Social Science, 11(15), 159-170.

Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4(3), 219-247.

Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A re-evauation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(6), 1063-1078.

Scheier, M.F., Carver, C.S., & Bridges, M.W. (2013). Life Orientation Test (LOT-R). Measurement Instrument Database for the Social Science. Doi: https://doi.org/10.13072/midss.533

Segovia, F., Moore, J.L., Linnville, S.E., Hoyt, R.E., & Hain, R.E. (2012). Optimism predicts resilience in repatriated prisoners of war: A 37-year longitudinal study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25(3), 330-336.

Seligman, M., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5-14.

Silber, E., & Tippett, J. S. (1965). Self-Esteem: Clinical Assessment and Measurement Validation. Psychological Reports, 16(3), 1017-1071.

Sharma, A., & Bali, D. (2013). Self-Esteem and Well-Being as the Major Indicators ofResilience to Stress. Indian Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(2), 386-392.

Snyder, C. R., & Lopez, S. J. (Eds.). (2002). Handbook of positive psychology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Souri, H., & Hasanirad, T. (2011). Relationship between Resilience, Optimism and Psychological Well-being in Students of Medicine. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 1541-1544. Doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.299

Swenson, P.L. (2003). A psychometric study of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: An investigation of gender dif (T). The University of British Columbia. Retrieved from https://open.library.ubc.ca/collections/ubctheses/831/items/1.0053822

Taylor, R. D. (1994). Risk and resilience: Contextual influences on the development of African-American Adolescents. In M.C. Wang & E.W. Gordon (Eds.). Educational resilience in inner-city America: Challenges and prospects (pp. 119-130). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrance Erlbaum.

Tinakon, W., & Nahathai, W. (2012). A Comparison of Reliability and Construct Validity between the Original and Revised Versions of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Psychiatry Investigation, 9(1), 54.

U.S. Marine Corps. (2010). Combat and Operational Stress Control. Marine Corps Reference Publication. Retrieved from https://www.doctrine.usmc.mil.

Vacek, K.R., Coyle, L.D., & Vera, E.M. (2010). Stress, Self-Esteem, Hope, Optimism, and Well-Being in Urban, Ethnic Minority Adolescents. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 38(2), 99-111.

Veselska, Z., Geckova A.M., Orsova, O., Gajdosova, B., van Dijk, J., & Reijneveld, S. (2009). Self-esteem and Resilience: The connection with risky behavior among adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 34(3), 287-291.

Werner, E. E., & Smith, R.S. (1982). Vulnerable but invincible: A longitudinal study of resilient children and youth. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Wolff, S. (1995). The concept of resilience. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 29(4), 565–574.

Wright, M. O., & Masten, A. S. (1997). Vulnerability and resilience in young children. In J. S. Greenspan, S. Weider, & J. Osofsky (Eds.), Handbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Preschooler Development and Syndromes (pp. 202–224). New York, NY: Wiley.

Wrosch, C., & Scheier, M.F. (2003). Personality and quality of life: the importance of optimism and goal adjustment. Quality of Life Research, 12(1), 59-72.

Zimmerman, M.A., (2013). Resiliency Theory: A Strengths-Based Approach to Research and Practice for Adolescent Health. Health Education & Behavior, 40(4), 381-383

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2019 Array

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.