Resilience, Grit, and Hardiness: Determining the Relationships amongst these Constructs through Structural Equation Modeling Techniques
Download PDF
Download PDF

How to Cite

Georgoulas-Sherry, V., & Kelly, D. (2019). Resilience, Grit, and Hardiness: Determining the Relationships amongst these Constructs through Structural Equation Modeling Techniques. Journal of Positive Psychology and Wellbeing, 1-12. Retrieved from http://journalppw.com/index.php/JPPW/article/view/147
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Abstract

A significant body of research has demonstrated the need to better understand character constructs that are integral in influencing and predicting human performance, specifically investigating resilience, grit, and hardiness. However, limited studies have examined the relationships that exist within these constructs. The current research addresses this gap by utilizing numerous structural equation modeling techniques to report on the relationships among resilience, grit, and hardiness. Employing a sample from the United States Military Academy (N = 1205), participants were asked to complete the Response to Stressful Experiences Scale, the Grit Scale, and the Dispositional Resilience Scale as part of the Reception Day battery of tests. Correlations matrixes reported positive relationships amongst resilience, grit, and hardiness. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) revealed a six-factor model structure of resilience and a bi-factor model of grit and hardiness. Additional CFAs revealed a three-factor model structure among the three constructs, resilience, grit, and hardiness. Implications for further work are presented.

Keywords

Resilience, hardiness, grit, military, leadership

References

Agaibi, C. E., & Wilson, J. P. (2005). Trauma, PTSD, and resilience: A review of the literature. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 6(3), 195-216. doi: 10.1177/1524838005277438

Ayala, J. C., & Manzano, G. (2014). The resilience of the entrepreneur. Influence on the success of the business. A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Economic Psychology, 42, 126-135. doi: 10.1016/j.joep.2014.02.004

Bartone, P. T. (1995, July). A short hardiness scale. In Proceedings of the July 1995 Annual Convention of the American Psychological Society. New York, NY. Retrieved from

https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a298548.pdf

Bartone, P. T. (1999). Hardiness protects against war-related stress in Army Reserve forces. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 51(2), 72-82. doi: 10.1037/1061-4087.51.2.72

Bartone, P. T. (2000). Hardiness as a resiliency factor for United States forces in the Gulf War. In J. M. Violanti, D. Paton, & C. Dunning (Eds.), Posttraumatic stress intervention: Challenges, issues, and perspectives (pp. 115-133). Springfield, IL, US: Charles C Thomas Publisher.

Bartone, P. T. (2007). Test-retest reliability of the dispositional resilience scale-15, a brief hardiness scale. Psychological Reports, 101(3), 943-944. doi: 10.2466/pr0.101.3.943-944

Bartone, P. T., Kelly, D. R., & Matthews, M. D. (2013). Psychological hardiness predicts adaptability in military leaders: A prospective study. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 21(2), 200-210. doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12029

Bartone, P. T., Marlowe, D. H., Gifford, R. K., & Wright, K. M. (1992, October). Personality hardiness predicts soldier adjustment to combat stress. In Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Military Testing Association (pp. 257-262). San Diego, CA: Navy Personnel Research and Development Center.

Besterman-Dahan, K., Barnett, S., Hickling, E., Elnitsky, C., Lind, J., Skvoretz, J., & Antinori, N. (2012). Bearing the burden: Deployment stress among army National Guard chaplains. Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy, 18(3-4), 151-168. doi: 10.1080/08854726.2012.723538

Bonanno, G. A. (2004). Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events?. American Psychologist, 59(1), 20-28. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.59.1.20

Bonanno, G. A., Galea, S., Bucciarelli, A., & Vlahov, D. (2007). What predicts psychological resilience after disaster? The role of demographics, resources, and life stress. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(5), 671-682. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.75.5.671

Cicchetti, D., & Garmezy, N. (1993). Prospects and promises in the study of resilience. Development and Psychopathology, 5(4), 497-502. doi: 10.1017/S0954579400006118

Cosentino, A. C., & Solano, A. C. (2012). Character strengths: A study of Argentinean soldiers. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 15(1), 199-215. doi: 10.1007/978-94-017-9035-2_6

Credé, M., Tynan, M. C., & Harms, P. D. (2017). Much ado about grit: A meta-analytic synthesis of the grit literature. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 113(3), 492-511. doi: 10.1037/pspp0000102

Datu, J. A. D., King, R. B., Valdez, J. P. M., & Eala, M. S. M. (2018). Grit is associated with lower depression via meaning in life among Filipino high school students. Youth & Society. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/0044118X18760402

Datu, J. A., Valdez J. P., & King, R. B. (2016). The successful life of gritty students: Grit leads to optimal educational and well-being outcomes in a collectivist context. In R. King & A. Bernardo (Eds.), The psychology of asian learners. Singapore, Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-981-287-576-1_31

De Vera, M. J., Gavino Jr, J. C., & Portugal, E. J. (2015). Grit and superior work performance in an Asian context. Paper presented at the Proceedings of 11th International Business and Social Science Research Conference, Crowne Plaza Hotel, Dubai. Retrieved from https://wbiworldconpro.com/pages/paper/dubai-conference-2015-january/2392

Dias, R., Santos, R. L., Sousa, M. F., Nogueira, M. M., Torres, B., Belfort, T., & Dourado, M. C. (2015). Resilience of caregivers of people with dementia: a systematic review of biological and psychosocial determinants. Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, 37(1), 12-19. doi: 10.1590/2237-6089-2014-0032

Duckworth, A. L., & Quinn, P. D. (2009). Development and validation of the Short Grit Scale (GRIT–S). Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(2), 166-174. doi: 10.1080/00223890802634290

Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M. D., & Kelly, D. R. (2007). Grit: Perseverance and

passion for long-term goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(6), 1087-1101. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.92.6.1087

Eid, J., & Morgan III, C. A. (2006). Dissociation, hardiness, and performance in military cadets participating in survival training. Military Medicine, 171(5), 436-442. doi: 10.7205/milmed.171.5.436

Eschleman, K. J., Bowling, N. A., & Alarcon, G. M. (2010). A meta-analytic examination of hardiness. International Journal of Stress Management, 17(4), 277-307. doi: 10.1037/a0020476

Eskreis-Winkler, L., Duckworth, A. L., Shulman, E. P., & Beal, S. (2014). The grit effect: Predicting retention in the military, the workplace, school and marriage. Frontiers in Psychology, 5(36), 1-12. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00036

Finney, S. J., & DiStefano, C. (2006). Non-normal and categorical data in structural equation modeling. In G. R. Hancock and R. O. Mueller (Eds.), Structural equation modeling A second course, (pp. 269-314). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Friborg, O., Barlaug, D., Martinussen, M., Rosenvinge, J. H., & Hjemdal, O. (2005). Resilience in relation to personality and intelligence. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 14(1), 29-42. doi: 10.1002/mpr.15

Gayton, S. D., & Kehoe, E. J. (2015). A prospective study of character strengths as predictors of selection into the Australian army special force. Military Medicine, 180(2), 151-157. doi: 10.7205/MILMED-D-14-00181

Gavidia-Payne, S., Denny, B., Davis, K., Francis, A., & Jackson, M. (2015). Parental resilience: A neglected construct in resilience research. Clinical Psychologist, 19(3), 111-121. doi: 10.1111/cp.12053

Gignac, G. E. (2008). Higher-order models versus direct hierarchical models: gas superordinate or breadth factor?. Psychology Science Quarterly, 50(1), 21-43. Retrieved from https://www.psychologie-aktuell.com/fileadmin/download/PschologyScience/1-2008/04_Gignac.pdf

Gooding, P. A., Hurst, A., Johnson, J., & Tarrier, N. (2012). Psychological resilience in young and older adults. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 27(3), 262-270. doi: 10.1002/gps.2712

Griffin, K. W., Botvin, G. J., Scheier, L. M., Epstein, J. A., & Doyle, M. M. (2002). Personal competence skills, distress, and well-being as determinants of substance use in a predominantly minority urban adolescent sample. Prevention Science, 3(1), 23-33. doi: 10.1023/A:1014667209130

Hannah, S. T., Campbell, D. J., & Matthews, M. D. (2010). Advancing a research agenda for leadership in dangerous contexts. Military Psychology, 22(S1), S157-S189. doi: 10.1080/08995601003644452

Harel, Z., Kahana, B., & Wilson, J. P. (1993). War and remembrance: The legacy of Pearl Harbor. In J. P. Wilson & B. Raphael (Eds.), International handbook of traumatic stress syndromes (pp. 263-274). New York, New York: Springer.

Hystad, S. W., Eid, J., Laberg, J. C., & Bartone, P. T. (2011). Psychological hardiness predicts admission into Norwegian Military Officer Schools. Military Psychology, 23(4), 381- 389. doi: 10.1080/08995605.2011.589333

Johnson, D. C., Thom, N. J., Stanley, E. A., Haase, L., Simmons, A. N., Shih, P. A., Thompson, W. K., Potterat, E. G., Minor, T. R. & Paulus, M. P. (2014). Modifying resilience mechanisms in at-risk individuals: a controlled study of mindfulness training in Marines preparing for deployment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 171(8), 844-853. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.13040502

Johnson, D. C., Polusny, M. A., Erbes, C. R., King, D., King, L., Litz, B. T., Schnurr, P. P., Friedman, M., Pietrzak, R. H., & Southwick, S. M. (2013). Development and initial validation of the Response to Stressful Experiences Scale. Military Medicine, 176(2), 161-169. doi: 10.7205/milmed-d-10-00258

Kelly, D. R., & Bartone, P. T. (2005). Personality hardiness, attrition, and leader performance at West Point. Poster presented at the American Psychological Association Annual Convention. Washington, DC.

Kelly, D. R., Matthews, M. D., & Bartone, P. T. (2005). Hardiness predicts adaptation to a challenging military environment. Poster presented at the International Applied Military Psychology Symposium. Washington, DC.

Kelly, D. R., Matthews, M. D., & Bartone, P. T. (2014). Grit and hardiness as predictors of performance among West Point cadets. Military Psychology, 26(4), 327-342. doi: 10.1037/mil0000050

Laursen, E. K. (2015). The power of grit, perseverance, and tenacity. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 23(4), 19-24.

Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71(3), 543-562. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00164

Maddi, S. R., Matthews, M. D., Kelly, D. R., Villarreal, B., & White, M. (2012). The role of hardiness and grit in predicting performance 591 and retention of USMA cadets. Military Psychology, 24(1), 19-28. doi: 10.1080/08995605.2012.639672

Martin, J. J., Byrd, B., Watts, M. L., & Dent, M. (2015). Gritty, hardy, and resilient: predictors of sport engagement and life satisfaction in wheelchair basketball players. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 9(4), 345-359. doi: 10.1123/jcsp.2015-0015

Masten, A. S. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56(3), 227-238. doi: 10.1037//0003-066X.56.3.227

Matthews, M. D., Eid, J., Kelly, D., Bailey, J. K., & Peterson, C. (2006). Character strengths and virtues of developing military leaders: An international comparison. Military Psychology, 18(S1), S57-S68. doi: 10.1207/s15327876mp1803s_5

Muenks, K., Wigfield, A., Yang, J. S., & O'Neal, C. R. (2017). How true is grit? Assessing its relations to high school and college students’ personality characteristics, self-regulation, engagement, and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109(5), 599-620. doi: 10.1037/edu0000153

Ong, A. D., Zautra, A. J., & Reid, M. C. (2010). Psychological resilience predicts decreases in pain catastrophizing through positive emotions. Psychology and Aging, 25(3), 516-523. doi: 10.1037/a0019384

Parthasarathy, N., & Chakraborty, P. (2014). Grit as a dominant leadership trait in the corporate world. In I. C. Patranabis (Ed.), Globysn Mangement Conference (pp. 189-199). India: Allied Publishers Private Limited.

Robertson-Kraft, C., & Duckworth, A. L. (2014). True grit: Trait-level perseverance and passion for long-term goals predicts effectiveness and retention among novice teachers. Teachers College Record, 116(3), 1-27. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/ PMC4211426/

Rojas, J. P., Reser, J. A., Toland, M. D., & Usher, E. L. (2012, March). Psychometrics of the Grit scale. Poster presented at the 2012 Spring Research Conference, Louisville, KY. Retrieved from https://sites.education.uky.edu/motivation/files/2013/08/PojasPeser TolandUsher.pdf

Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(4), 719-727. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.69.4.719

Salles, A., Mueller, C. M., & Cohen, G. L. (2016). A values affirmation intervention to improve female residents' surgical performance. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, 8(3), 378-383. doi: 10.4300/JGME-D-15-00214.1

Sandvik, A. M., Bartone, P. T., Hystad, S. W., Phillips, T. M., Thayer, J. F., & Johnsen, B. H. (2013). Psychological hardiness predicts neuroimmunological responses to stress. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 18(6), 705-713. doi: 10.1080/13548506.2013.772304

Shrivastava, M. U., & Mishra, V. (2016). Grit, resilience and agency in sportspersons and non- sportspersons. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 5(10), 1-4. Retrieved from http://www.ijhssi.org/papers/v5(10)/version-4/A051040104.pdf

Southwick, S. M., Bonanno, G. A., Masten, A. S., Panter-Brick, C., & Yehuda, R. (2014). Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 5. doi: 10.3402/ejpt.v5.25338

Wilson, J. P., & Drozdek, B. (2004). Broken spirits: The treatment of traumatized asylum seekers, refugees and war and torture victims. New York, NY: Routledge Falmer.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.